The report is on the demographic analysis of a local government area and interpretation of data on social and health policies. The report will provide a brief review on the Bankstown local government area and develop a socioeconomic data of the region. It will identify demographic issue in the region and assess the health needs of the population. This will help in meeting the health needs of the population according to the socioeconomic issues faced by the citizens in Bankstown.
Bankstown Community Profile
Bankstown local government area is a city situated in the south-western part of Sydney, Australia. The region is identified as a major centre by the NSW government and it covers an area of 77 km2. The population density of Bankstown is 26.45 person per hectare and the total population according to Australian Bureau of statistic report was 203, 202 in the year 2015. It is considered as a residential, commercial as well as a industrial city. Migrants comprise a major part of the population demographics and they come from different countries like Vietnam, China and many other countries. It is the city in NSW which can be accessed by all modes of transport (Bankstown Facts and Figures, 2016).
History of Bankstown Local Government Area
The city of Bankstown was discovered by George Bass and Mathew Flinders during his expedition to the Georges River. The city was named in honor of famous Botanist Sir Joseph Banks who visited Australia. It became an official city in 1980 and it was merged with City of Canterbury. According to settlement history of the region, Europeans first settled in the land in 1798. With the increase in transportation network and introduction of the railway, the population of the area increased further. World War 2 also led to the establishment of many airports, armament process and industrial development. It provided new employment opportunities to new migrants entering the city. Various form of development in the area led to many more population growth and settlement. World War 2 also led to industrial revolution in Bankstown and establishment of new industrial centres (Caulfield & Larsen, 2013).
Demographic Analysis of Bankstown Local Government Area
According to 2011 census report, Banstown local government area consists of 49.3% male and 50.7% male population. The total resident population in the area was 182, 354 in 2011. According to latest estimate on resident population in Bankstown, the official population is 203, 202. Median age group of the area is 35 years, 21 % are between the age-group of 0-14 years and 13.7% comprise are above 65 years. The city consist of employed citizens and indigenous population particularly Aboriginal and Torres Islander people. Bankstown comprises maximum proportion of people in post retirement and schooling age. About 52.1% of citizens are married and 11 % consist of divorcees. It had a population density of 26.45% per hectare. According demographic analysis, the average age of the city is 31 years (Maginn & Hamnett, 2016).
Majority of migrants live in the city with maximum migrants coming from Lebanon. According to 2011 census, proportion of people with Lebanese ancestry was more than national average. It is a linguistically diverse country with people speaking Arabic, Vietnamese, Greek, Cantonese and Mandarin language. Top ancestry consisted of Australian followed by Lebanese, English, Vietnamese and Chinese. In terms of dwelling, 68.2% dwelling consist of separate house and 31% consist of medium and high density dwelling. Other type of dwelling structure included private cabin, house boat and others (Maginn & Hamnett, 2016).
Bankstown is a city of regional diversity and people belonging to different religions like Islam, Catholic, Hindiusm, Anglican and Eastern-Orthodox lives in the city 21.5% are western Roman Catholic, 26.2% belong to Islamic religion, 12.2% comprise Buddhism, 8.6% eastern orthodox and rest with no religious affiliation (Dunn & Piracha, 2015).
Education and Income
The first school was established in Bankstown in the year 1880 by Dugald Mcleod. This further transformed into North Bankstown School. Currently, the city has famous educational sites like University of Western Sydney located in the campus of Bankstown. There are also many technical and further educations (TAFE) institute in the city and numerous public and private schools (Cheung et al., 2016).
The city has diverse economy with income mostly coming from manufacturing business, administrative jobs and industrial business. Printing Presses are also major source of income in the city including The Australia, The Sun-Herald and many others. Bankstown airport, Revesby and Milperra are major industrial area and source of economy. Retail business is also expanding in the city with the rise in number of shopping centers. The city’s gross regional product is about 9.04 billion dollar. Manufacturing industry is the largest industry in the city. According to 2015 report, about 82,941 people are employed residents and 77,835 have local jobs. Two-third people come from outside the city for employment. Other types of occupation in the city include labourers, technicians, machine operators, community workers, drivers, clerical and administrative workers. Hence, majority of people (about 57.4%) are employed in labour force and 25.3% have full-time jobs. The city also suffers from unemployment problem which is double the national rate for unemployment. This is mainly because of low education level, socioeconomic disadvantage, health issues, lack of awareness and socioeconomic disadvantage (Mendes et al., 2013).
Health Need Analysis
The common public health issues found in the city includes unhygienic and unhealthy public place, accumulation off waste and all kinds of pollution in the environment. Due to unemployment, poor nutrition, unhealthy lifestyle and homelessness, Bankstown citizen suffers from mental illness and depression. Poor social life also leads to increased family conflicts and strained relationship. A large number of people are overweight due to poor life choices. According to Health Statistics NSW report, about 98.5% hospital separations has been reported (Dixon & Isaacs, 2013). People have been mainly hospitalized for alcoholism, smoking issues, high body mass index (obesity), coronary heart disease, COPD, diabetes, fall related injury and hospitalization due to stroke. The rate of diabetes is maximum among indigenous people due to socioeconomic disadvantage and poor nutritional habits. Among chronic diseases, high rate of hospitalization was seen for coronary heart disease. According to death statistics, death has occurred due to smoking attributes, alcoholism and obesity (Logan et al., 2016).
Infectious diseases like Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Syphilis is also prevalent in the city. About 78% people in Bankstown suffered from Hepatitis B compared to 37.6% in NSW area. This was followed by high rate for Chlamydia, hepatitis C, Gonorrhoea and syphilis. The self-reported health status of the people of Bankstown are as follows:
Self-rated health status by year
Diabetes by year
Many cases of cancer like Lung cancer, prostrate cancer, melanoma cancer, uterus cancer and many more also have been reported in the area. According to the mortality rate per 100,000 populations, the rate of all type of cancer is 1828 in Bankstown and the incidence rate of cancer per 1,00,000 population is 4,275 (Merom et al., 2015). According to health service utilization data on the city, the most common reason for hospitalization is Dialysis, digestive system diseases, neonatal complications, cardiovascular diseases, muscoskeletal disease, respiratory diseases, fall related injury and suicide and nervous system disorder. Health risk behavior mostly seen in the citizens included high risk alcohol drinking, poor fruit and vegetable consumption, lack of physical activity and smoking (Byles et al., 2015).
Future Challenges and Recommendation
From the demographic and health need analysis of Bankstown, health service will face many challenges to meet increased service demand due to population growth. Ageing of the population will also mean more people requiring adequate health service to improve their quality of life. Health risk behavior like decreases exercise, smoking and tobacco use will lead to more chances of chronic diseases. It will mean health care system will need to take drastic step to update equipment and infrastructure to meet demand of acute care (Chang et al., 2016).
The recommendation to improve current health issues in Bankstown are as follows:
- Promoting maximum collaboration with health care staff to provide immediate health service.
- Increasing the variety of health care service by partnership with various health agencies.
- Incorporating current research and evidence based clinical guidelines in everyday practice.
- Training multi-disciplinary health care team to tackle the complex diseases and provide high quality supervision to patients.
- Introducing new models of care according to relevant need of the population.
- Using technologically advanced medical equipment and tool for health service delivery.
- Creating high standard of health service environment and engaging patients in decision making.
- Raising awareness about risky behavior and unhealthy habits and their impact on health
- Providing culturally competent care to understand cultural needs of the population and responding to their sensitive health issues.
- Providing support for adequate housing, aged care centers and other facilities to improve the overall quality of life of people (Quarmby et al., 2016).
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