Research design a put forward by Creswell and Creswell (2017) is the framework of the research that communicates the overall methods utilised. Understanding of the research design is capable of communicating the complete research process adopted for the completion of data collection and analysis. Hence, it is important for the researcher to state research precisely for enabling the readers to formulate idea about the research being conducted. The research design necessary to implement in completing this study is cross-sectional design. Following this research design requires the researcher to collect data from more than one case in the single timeframe. In other words, collection of data implementing this design requires multiple target samples, which is again collected at the same point of time. Both qualitative and quantitative data can be collected using this design. Cross-sectional study further benefits the researcher to deal with multiple variables at the same time (Dutra and Glantz 2014). Hence, it will allow identifying the relationship between the satisfaction level and law of the host country as well as the relationship between happiness and variables controlling the happiness of the target population. The research methods that can be associated with this particular design are survey method, participant observation method, in-depth interview schedule, content analysis etc. belonging form both qualitative and quantitative approach. Application of this research design will particularly help in the quantitative research approach selected for the research for the measurement of happiness index. This will provide in-depth idea and enable to assume the level of happiness perceived by the Arabians living abroad over various countries around the world.
The other available research designs in the academic field are experimental design, longitudinal design, case-study method and comparative design. The longitudinal method shows its utility in identification of change in a population over a period. The study using longitudinal method deals with one single population over a period of time. Hence, implementation of this design would have been ineffective due to the desired type of data required in the research as it aims to work in a multiple target population in a single point of time dealing with a number of variables in hand (Rast and Hofer 2014). Case study design would have been useful for this research due to its applicability in qualitative studies. However, the limit of case study is restricted due to its applicability on a single case. The requirement of using multiple target population restricts its applicability in the research. Comparative design on the other hand compares variables over multiple cases that fail the purpose of the research (Badami et al. 2014). The research aims to identify the level of happiness among the non-residential Arabians in the foreign nations and the variables affecting their happiness, where comparative study has no purpose to serve. Lastly, the experimental design as explained by Curtis et al. (2105) is the structure that facilitates the research in hypothesis testing. The process in this design involves the research to identify relation between independent and dependent variables. This design provides opportunity to control the environment of the study manipulating its variables. One of the variables involved in the research is kept constant while identifying its relationship with other variables involved. Hence, this research is incapable for providing desired results of the research.
Aim of the research is to identify the happiness level of the UAE population living outside the nation. This requires conducting quantitative research con the target population for measuring the happiness index in case of the non-residential Arabian around the world. Quantitative research as communicated by Yilmaz (2013) is the statistical study that identify the variables in terms of quantifiable number. This approach implemented in the research will help in identifying the level of happiness perceived by the target population. This will further notify about the nature of variables involved in the happiness index. Survey method will be useful in this case where the target population can be studied using closed-ended questionnaire. The target population will be provided a set of closed ended questions for indicating their level of happiness in the foreign country relating it to a number of variables involved in the research. The qualitative approach on the other hand will be helpful in collecting data aiming to answer the relationship between satisfaction and foreign law (O’reilly and Parker 2013). This will further help in understanding the process of achieving justice, while respecting the interior law of the country. This particular purpose of the research will be satisfied using in-depth interview schedule, where open-ended questions will be utilised. The open-ended questions in the interview will allow the respondents to represent their experience in the foreign country and the happiness perceived by the individuals. This in-turn will help in understanding the issues concerned and further contribute in change development required for increasing the level of happiness among the population. This can be considered to provide greater benefits to the in the research as it has future appliances. The results obtained from qualitative approach can be implemented in future studies for developing policies and agreement with host country, which will result in developing the happiness level index.
Reliability and Validity
Reliability and validity relates to the authenticity of the data collected, henceforth the research conducted. Reliability of the research will be measured using three primary indicators of reliability that are stability, internal reliability and interpreter reliability. Stability refers to the data stability over time. In other words, this is the measurement of data over specific time gap. Reliability is maintained if the results over time reflect similarity when using similar research design and methods (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber 2014). Internal reliability on the other hand is the identification of consistency of the indicators. The reliability in this case is attained if the results reflect to be consistent. Lastly, using inter-rater helps in establishing reliability through measuring consistency between observers. The reliability-measuring tool applicable in this case is test retest method is a useful tool that will be applied to confirm validity of this research.
Validity on the other hand is understood through a number of aspects defining a number of purposes of the research. Some holds the validity of the research, whereas others identify hte validity of the criterion over time (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber 2014). The research aims to identify the level of happiness in the current period to understand modifications required. Hence, the face validity will be useful for establishing validity in this case, as it will help validating the concept.
Concept of a research is the building blocks of any research. This is referred to the formulated aims and objectives that research seeks to answer. It is important to identify the particular concept or concepts of a research to direct the research in the particular direction while implementing the qualitative and quantitative research methods. This will help explaining the aspects of variables involved. The concept developed in this research is that the happiness index for the Arabians living outside UAE is related and considerably regulated by a number of factors or variables. The Moreover, the research further focuses on identification of the relationship between happiness of the foreign residents and the legislation of the host country. It is conceptualised that the legislation have direct impact on the happiness of the foreign residents due to the sudden change in the laws. Variation in the laws in the home country is the result of this shock.
The nature of research requires the sampling for conducting the study while maintaining the reliability and validity of the research. Happiness index study will require collecting data from people living outside the United Arab Emirates. The size of the considered population is significantly large and scattered, which can alter the validity of the collected data. Hence, sampling of the population will help in concluding similar result while studying smaller section of the target population. Sampling as defined by Levy and Lemeshow (2013) is the method utilised in academic research to identify smaller section of a larger population maintaining the validity of the acquired data. The sampling method utilised for this research will be both probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling due to the approaches selected for the research. Probabilistic sampling will help in conducting quantitative research, whereas, non-probabilistic sampling will help in qualitative approach. Furthermore, stratified random sampling is selected for probability sampling, which will stratify the population based on the characteristics of data aimed (Acharya et al. 2013). The strata for this research can be tourists, students, employees, patients etc. The questionnaire will be provided to the sample selected using stratified random selection method. This will be larger compared to the one selected through non-probability sampling. Non-probability method selected for this research is purposive sampling technique, which considers the criteria for answering the questions. Sample population is selected based on research criteria (Palinkas et al. 2015). This will help answering the research question about the link between happiness and the process of achieving happiness while respecting law of host country. Sampling error is expected in this case due to incorporation of purposive sampling method selected for qualitative approach. This method significantly reduces the validity of sampling due to the categorisation in selection process. Stratified sampling method on the other hand reflects minimum error due to minimum biasness reflected in the selection process.
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