Employee engagement is considered being a workplace approach that results in the appropriate conditions regarding every organizational staffs for giving their utmost ever day, committed to the goals and values of the company, having the motivation towards the success of the organization as well as having an improved sense of their personal welfare. Certain factors that can motivate employees are associated with the aspect of recognizing the abilities, having a sense of achievement, stimulating work, promotion, having a sense of responsibility and empowerment and so on. There are various ways in which an organizational leader will be able to provide motivation and inspiration to their employees (Rumbles 2015). The most common methods that are considered being effective in this regard are associated with the aspect of showing confidence in each individual, encouraging a ‘take charge’ behavioural aspect, in which individuals are making things happen, encouraging the aspect to involve as well as empower each individual, giving credit as well as praising each person that deserves it, fostering the process of working in a team as well as encouraging togetherness, assisting in building pride in the contribution’s of individuals, encouraging the process of working in a team and for every individual in assisting one another, providing scopes in respect of every individual for learning new skills as well as capabilities and leading as well as individually contributing to the growth of each individual (Mital 2014).
According to Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, there are two factors that are influencing motivation as well as satisfaction of the staffs. The motivation factors are considered to be the factors that are leading towards satisfaction as well as motivating the staffs in working harder. For instance, this might take into consideration the scope of enjoying the work, feeling recognized as well as having a progression in their career (Moliner 2017). The Hygiene factors state that they will be leading towards dissatisfaction as well as a lack of motivation when they are not present. These include salaries, organizational policies, advantages, relationships with managers as well as colleagues. Although the motivator factors helped in increasing the satisfaction as well as motivation of the staffs, the lack of these factors will not necessarily be causing dissatisfaction. Similarly, the existence of the hygiene factors does not seem to increase satisfaction as well as motivation, however their lack gave rise to the growth in dissatisfaction (Martin 2017).
This theory provides the implication that in respect of having the most productive workforce, there is the requirement for working towards the improvement of the motivator as well as hygiene factors. For providing assistance in motivating the staffs, it is necessary ensuring that they are having a feeling of appreciation as well as assistance. There is the requirement for providing numerous feedbacks and ensuring that the staffs have an understanding in which ways they can develop and make progression through the organization. For the prevention of job dissatisfaction, it is to be ensured that the organizational staffs should be having a feeling that they get the right treatment by getting the most suitable conditions for work as well as fair wages. It is to ensure that proper attention is paid to the team and supportive relationships are formed with them (Pettigrew 2014).
For the occurrence of true engagement within an organization, there is the requirement for removing the concerns that are causing dissatisfaction – the baseline advantages provided by the organization that will be satisfying the hygiene requirements of the staffs.
According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the bottom-line of this theory is that the most fundamental requirements of the individuals must be actualized before they will be becoming motivated for achieving higher level requirements. The hierarchy comprises of five stages that are physiological, safety, love, esteem as well as self-actualization. The physiological requirements must be met for the survival of an individual that includes food, water as well as shelter. The safety requirements will include the individual as well as financial security as well as health and welfare. The love need is associated with friendships, relationships and family. The esteem needs is associated with the requirement to feel confident and have respect from others. And, finally self-actualization need is having the desirability for achieving everything that one possibly can and becoming the best of oneself (Kelloway 2017).
For instance, Chip Conley, the founder of the Joie de Vivre chain of hotels and Hospitality Head at Airbnb, made use of the Hierarchy of Needs pyramid for transforming his business. According to him, there are many managers who are struggling with the abstract concept of self-actualization and therefore, are focusing on the lower stages of the pyramid as an alternative. During an employee retreat, Conley found that one of the ways for assisting with the higher stages was to assist his staffs in understanding the meaning of their roles (Lyon 2015). His team was able to realise their job towards the organization and towards the people they were assisting. The team was able to feel respected as well as motivated for working harder when the importance of their roles was shown to them. Therefore, it is recommended to a manager that for getting the best out of the team, it is required to ensure that the team is given adequate support in other areas of their lives outside work (Haslam 2014). He might offer flexible working hours for providing the staffs with the necessary time for focusing on their families and ensuring that they are paid in fair manner for assisting them in having economical stability.
According to the Hawthorne Effect, it can be stated that it is tendency of certain individuals in working harder as well as performing more effectively when they were getting observed by the seniors. It seemed that the productivity of the staffs had a gradual improvement when a change was made by the seniors in regard to a number of physical aspects that includes the aspect of lighting, hours of working as well as intervals (Hogg 2014). It seemed that the staffs gained motivation to work and started working more effectively in reply to the attention that was paid to them in comparison to the authentic physical changes themselves.
This theory also suggested that staffs will be working more productively when they will know that they are getting observed. Further improvement to this aspect can also be made by offering daily feedback to the employees regarding their work. When the staffs will have a feeling that they are being cared for in respect of their conditions for work, it might be motivating them in working harder (Jan 2014). Seniors within the organization can provide encouragement to their teams by providing feedback as well as suggestions relating to their workspace as well as growth.
According to the expectancy theory, it was proposed that individuals will be choosing in what ways behaviour should be conducted based upon the results they are expecting as an outcome of their behaviour. At the work-front, it might be that staffs are working for longer hours since they are expecting a rise in pay. On the other hand, this theory is also suggesting that the method by which staffs are deciding upon their behaviours, is also affected by the ways in which they are perceiving the rewards (Ghosh 2017). In this regard, the staffs might be having the inclination towards working hard when a promise of a pay-rise will be made to them.
This theory is depending upon three components such as expectancy, instrumentality as well as valence. The expectancy element is associated with the mindset that the effort of a staff will be resulting in his/her anticipated goal. This is depending upon the previous experience of the staff, the self-confidence of the staff and how much challenging it is for the staff to actualize the goal (Lammers 2013). The instrumentality element is suggesting that a staff is having the belief that he/she will be getting rewarded when they will be meeting the performance expectations. The valence element is associated with the value he/she will be placing on the reward. As a result, in regard to the Expectancy Theory, employees get motivated when they are having the belief that they will be receiving a much needed reward when they will be hitting an attainable target (Judge 2014). On the other hand, the staffs are not having adequate motivation due to the fact that they are not having the desire to receive the reward or they do not believe that their endeavours will be resulting in the achievement of the reward.
This theory when applied in the workplace will be associated with the key aspect of setting achievable objectives in respect of the staffs as well as providing rewards that they are having an actual desire for. Rewards might not be occurring in the form of rise in payment or bonuses. To provide motivation to the staffs, attributes such as praise, scope to progress as well as ‘staff of the month’ rewards style will be going a long way to provide motivation for the staffs (Rees 2015).
According to the three-dimensional theory of attribution, it can be stated that this theory will be explaining in what ways the staffs are attaching meaning to their own as well as the behaviour of other individuals. There are various theories in respect of attribution. The thee-dimensional theory of attribution will be stating that the reasons the staffs are attributing to their behaviour will be influencing in what ways they will be behaving in the future. It can also be stated that particular attributions were having less significance in comparison to the attribution traits (Pugh 2013). There are three major attribution traits that will be affecting motivation in the future that will be including the aspect of stability, locus of control as well as controllability.
In respect of the characteristic regarding stability, it is to be found out how much stability is there within the attribution. It needs to be stated that the steady attributions in respect of successful achievements will be leading towards positive anticipations and therefore, higher motivation in respect of future success. On the other hand, in challenging circumstances, constant attributions will be leading towards lower future expectations (Lee 2016).
In respect of locus of control, it can be stated whether the event that occurred was because of an internal factor or external factor.
In respect of controllability, it can be stated how controllable was the circumstance. For instance, when an employee is having the belief that they could have provided a better performance but did not do so, in the next time they might feel less motivated in trying once more in the future in comparison to an individual who is having the belief that the reason for their failure was due to the factors that were out of their controlling ability (Amulf 2014).
In regard to the application of this theory in the workplace, it can be stated that it is having the implications in respect of staff feedback. It is to ensure that the staffs will be receiving particular feedback, which will help them in having the knowledge that they can improve and in what ways they need to proceed with it (Wilson 2013).
According to the Theory X, Theory Y Model, it can be stated that there are two ways to manage as well as motivate the employees. In accordance with this theory, it can be stated that many managers are tending towards the Theory X and in general, starts getting poor outcomes. On the other hand, the managers that are enlightened as well as successful are using Theory Y that is producing better performance as well as outcomes, and allowing the employees in having growth as well as having a development in their roles (Biswas 2015).
Theory X is considered as the authoritarian style of management stating that an average staff is detesting work and will be avoiding it whenever it is possible for him to do so. As a result, majority of the staffs need to be forced for actualizing the organizational goals by threatening them with punishment. An average employee is having the preference of being directed, for the avoidance of responsibility, and is somewhat having less ambition and longs for security more than anything else (Pearson 2014).
Theory Y is considered being the participative management style stating that employees are applying individual control as well as individual direction for pursuing the goals of the organization without having any external control or the threat of getting punished. Employees are generally accepting as well as mostly seeking responsibility. Being committed to their goals is a functional aspect relating to rewards that is associated with the achievement of the employees (Reynolds 2017).
To conclude the discussion, it can be stated that for understanding the team through the use of theories of motivation, certain stages need to be applied for assisting in inspiring, motivating as well as influencing the team towards becoming successful. In this regard, there is the requirement for putting a plan together, completing with actions as well as time-scales, for including these factors within the organizational team as well as practices of leadership. In today’s modern world of business, managers are having the realization that motivation is very much significant within the place of work and therefore, having a strong dependence upon the principals as well as constructs that are explained in different motivational theories, having the belief that these will be assisting in improving the performance as well as satisfaction of the staffs. Also, employee engagement is associated with the emotional experiences as well as welfare of the organizational employees. It has been found out that emotional factors are having a link with the individual satisfaction of an employee as well as the sense of inspiration as well as confirmation they are getting from their work as well as from being a part of the company.
It has also been stated that employee engagement is considered having meaning when there occurs a more authentic responsibility sharing amongst the management as well as staffs regarding matters of substance. One of the major drivers of staff engagement was in relation to the staffs having the scope for feeding their opinions to the seniors. In addition, the engaged staffs are more likely to do the displaying of discretionary behavioural aspect. Engagement is considered having a close relation with the feelings as well as insights for getting valued as well as having an involvement that as a result, will be generating the types of flexible effort that will be leading towards improved performance. Therefore, irrespective of how automated a company might be, increased productivity will be depending upon the motivational level as well as the efficiency regarding the workforce. As a result, the training of the employees is considered being a vital strategic aspect in respect of motivating the employees. Certain factors that will be doing the enhancement of staff motivation are fair pay, special allowances, leadership, supervision quality, sufficient relationship to work, scope for growth, organizational loyalty, identifying as well as fulfilling the requirements, better conditions for work and so on. Moreover, there are three major attribution traits that will be affecting motivation in the future that will be including the aspect of stability, locus of control as well as controllability.
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