Globalisation: Gender And Development Essay


Discuss about the Globalisation for Gender and Development.


E learning activities:

Thomas Friedman on Globalisation; 3 Eras of Globalisation; World is flat:

Thomas Friedman pointed out to three eras of globalisation and their impacts on the earth in his first speech. The first era or globalisation 1.0 started in 1492 and continued till 1800s during which the industrially advanced countries of Europe like the United Kingdom, Spain and Portugal colonised different parts of the world like India and east Asia. The people of the countries experienced globalisation through their countries and that shrunk the world from large to size medium. The next era globalisation 2.0 was characterised by companies expanding globally in search of markets and labour. This phase lasted till 2000s and the world shrank to smaller under the impact of corporate globalisation. The latest trend in globalisation is dominated by individuals which is terrifying yet excited. Today individuals compete, connect and collaborate to the run the flat global economy. Friedman in his speech elaborated the impact of growing power of individuals and globalisation. He said that today the iron rule is what can be done will be done because people have too much resources, power and ideas. Today the iron is either do something and watch someone else do it. He then went to narrate the story of his friend who discovered Peruvian dishes and went on to make them cheaply available in China.

Some of the key drawbacks or risks of residing in the flat world of globalisation is that individuals have too much power and resources which is exciting and terrifying. The professor has hinted towards the risk of terrorism and global security in his speech. According to Friedman the iron rule of this flat world is that individuals are capable of impacting the whole world with their actions. They connect, communicate and collaborate to run companies, countries and in fact the very global economy(Bener?a, Berik and Floro 2015).

Friedman’s iron rule of flat world which says that what can be done will be done by individuals is agreeable. His opinion is agreeable because today people have the excessive resources, knowledge, ideas and power to do actions to impact the whole world. Fried over here described this as exciting and hinted at the entrepreneurial ventures around the world. Simultaneously he described this increase of access to vast resources at levels as frightening and hinted at growing threats to the global economy like terrorism. Thus, it can be inferred that Friedman’s iron rule of flat world is agreeable(Fukuyama 2014).

The level of globalisation is not uniform across the world. There are nations like the United States of America, Canada and the United Kingdom which have developed markets and are home to several multinational companies. There are economies like India, China and Brazil which are emerging into global economies and have fast developing markets characterised by increasing productivity. These countries have their own multinational companies and experience heavy flow of resources to and from the developed markets(Pieterse 2015). There are countries like the African countries which are underdeveloped and cannot even meet their basic necessities. The markets of these countries depend on the developed and the developing economies for their development. This shows that the level of globalisation is not uniform all around the world.

Pankaj Ghemawat on Globalistion:

Professor Pankaj Ghemawat in his speech raised a very pertinent question about the actual meaning of globalisation. He pointed that some people support globalisation while others are against it. He said that the first group called proglobalisation group actually believe that globalisation has taken place while the second group view it as ways to wreck the future life on earth. He mentioned that today people live in a world where national boundaries have become blurred and the cross border integration of countries is almost achieved due to globalisation. He stressed on the fact that the people including students, delegates and even learned men like Thomas Friedman perceive that rate of globalisation higher than it actually is. The world is often considered flat due to over exaggerated rates of flow of people, capital and money. He pointed out that the world is not actually flat and is in fact spherical where cross border exchange of resources like capital and human resources are far less than perceived(Kraidy 2017).

The perceived view of globalisation of mine has changed considerably after listening to the speech of Professor Pankaj Ghemawat. He agreed that cross culture integration is almost complete and that national borders between countries have blurred. He pointed out that globalisation is characterised by immense flow of information, capital and resources across nations. However, he also pointed out that the people around the world often perceive this rate of cross border flows of resources to be far higher than reality. Thus, Professor Ghemawat clearly pointed out that though the world has shrunk in size but still the rate of flow of resources from one country to the other are often overstated (Altbach 2015).

People have fear about globalisation and its impact on the world. They fear that cross border integration has reached its potential. People in certain places feel that globalisation has threatened their existence like, the people of France fear that 24 percent of French population are immigrants. The actual data show that merely 8 percent of French population are immigrants compared to the perceived fear of 24 percent.

These fears may subside with the realisation of the fact that the integration between countries have not reached its full potential. There are still areas where countries can integrate their resources to bring strengthen globalisation and world economy(Baylis, Owens and Smith 2017).


It can be concluded that both Professor Friedman and Professor Ghemawat are right in their respective speeches and opinion. Professor Friedman’s claim of flat world and globalisation is appropriate. This is because his speech clearly point out the increasing power of individuals to mobilise resources and influence the world economy with their activities. Again Professor Ghemawat is right because he is able to point out that this rate of globalisation is often perceived far greater than it is.


Altbach, P., 2015. Higher education and the WTO: Globalization run amok. International Higher Education, (23).

Baylis, J., Owens, P. and Smith, S. eds., 2017. The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations. Oxford University Press.

Bener?a, L., Berik, G. and Floro, M., 2015. Gender, development and globalization: economics as if all people mattered. Routledge.

Fukuyama, F., 2014. Political order and political decay: From the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Kraidy, M., 2017. Hybridity, or the cultural logic of globalization. Temple University Press.

Pieterse, J.N., 2015. Globalization and culture: Global m?lange. Rowman & Littlefield.

YouTube. 2017). What Thomas Friedman means when he says "The World is Flat". [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017].

YouTube. 2017. Thomas Friedman's Three Eras of Globalization. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017].

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