Global Climate Change And Emissions Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Global Climate Change and Emissions.

Answer:

Introduction

Climate change is a massive change in the weather patterns of the earth. It involves a shift in the general climate of a place. The term ‘Climate change’ is specific in its usage and usually refers to a change in the climate of the earth (A.G. Russell, 2007, p. 143-152). Unlike weather change which takes place within a short time, climate change takes a long time. This could be hundreds of years or may even go up to millions of years. The report, therefore, has explored the entire topic of climate change, causes of the climate change, its impacts and the mitigation. The report is specifically built on the case study of Fiji.

Causes of climate change

Climate change is caused human activities or natural occurrences. Some of the natural activities that cause climate change include volcano eruption. Man’s activities can also cause a climate change (Nelson and Palmer, 2007, p. 440-452). Humans burn fossil fuels which produce carbon. The emission of CO2 significantly contributes to global warning. Climate change is gradual but yet continuous. Currently, the temperatures of the earth are increasing. The earth is becoming warmer. The temperatures of the earth have gone up with about one degree. This change in temperatures seems small but has got a lot of effects on the earth (Boisvenue, et al. 2006, p. 1-12).

Effects of climate change to the globe

One of the effects of climate change includes global warming. Global warming means that some places will become hotter causing ice and snow to melt while other locations will experience colder winters. Again, most climate scientists have observed that climate change has also caused oceans to rise. The weather patterns have changed and some places are experience more rainfall, yet others less rainfall and this has, therefore affected the times of the year (Tagaris, et al. 2008, p.348-448).

Fiji receives an annual average temperature of between 20-27 0c. Moreover, it receives variation in temperature during the day and night. Further, the country receives temperature change from season to the other. And the most recorded temperature varies according to the surrounding oceanic environment. The South Pacific convergence Zone movements largely determine the type of rainfall experienced in Fiji and this result to variation in the rainfall patterns in the country (Lal, 2003). The monsoon winds (trade winds) substantially determine the climate of Fiji and blows from the East to South East. Furthermore, the climate of Fiji considerably differs because of the El Nino – South Oscillation. The Suva region the El Nino Events brings dry seasons that are drier and cooler, unlike the La Nina effects that carry wetter conditions. Also, the Tropical cyclones are experienced and majorly affect Fiji between November and April. Therefore, the climate pattern of Fiji is variable, and thus it becomes tough to make an accurate prediction of the weather. It is because the change determinants are many and when the assessment is based on one factor, the climate will change based on the other that was not put into consideration.

How climate change have affected Fiji

Fiji has been majorly influenced by climate change. The coastal resources have been affected in many ways. For instance, the coasts of Fiji are experiencing coral bleaching due to increased sea surface temperatures. This has reduced coral growth, and therefore shoreline stability has reduced. Coral growth is necessary for aquatic life such as fisheries and other marine life. In addition to this, storm patterns have changed. The increase in storm magnitude has increased coastal erosion and inundation (Emanuel, et al. 2008, p. 347-367).

The rising sea levels of Fiji due to climate change have also affected this country in a great way. It has experienced rising sea levels, and this has led to floods in the farms neighboring the water masses during high tide (Allan, et al. 2005, p. 200-250). The rise in the sea level has caused flooding which has invaded the Fiji residents in the homes. It led to displacements in various villages of Fiji. Many people have been forced to relocate, and even the government has come up with a program called ‘climate change refugee’ (Juanes and Beland, 2004). This program has been concerned with handling the people displaced due to climate change. Also, it has also dealt in constructing fish ponds for the people in places which has been affected by the issues of climate change (Moore, et al. 2005, p. 1169-1177).

The change has led to an increase in the frequency of epidemics. The outbreaks have resulted from the torrential rains. It is just one, but we have other water-borne diseases that have mostly affected the residents of Fiji as a result of floods and heavy rainfall (Gibson, 2012, p.23-50). Climate change has also affected Fiji’s tourism.

Responsible Parties for Climate Change in Fiji

Fiji is one of the countries that emit a lot of carbon to the environment (greenhouse gases). And the emissions are from industries and burning of fossils. The country has therefore shown the willingness to curb this and reduce the emissions. However, the country faces challenges attributed to pricing, lack of information, lack of standards for its imported machinery and appliances (Parmesan, 2006, p.367-669).

  • Establishment of Advisory benchmarks on environmental issues, particularly the climate change and its social and economic impacts.
  • Provision of education to people about the current climate change (Feresi, et al. 2000, p.123-140).
  • Seek for funding from established States to aid in meeting the cost of catastrophe and drought preparedness, among others.
  • Building of infrastructure to survive adverse weather events.
  • Adhering to the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Programme regarding climate change issues.

Political and economical measures

  • Building an economy that relies on renewable sources of energy as opposed to carbon fossils.
  • The government should increase the regulation climate on the levels of carbon emissions from the companies.
  • Funding the research and development intended to explore energy efficiency and clean energy.
  • Support innovative activities. It can be through partnering with the private and non-govern-mental organizations regarding reducing carbon IV oxide emissions.

Climate measures

  • A forestation and establishment of sustainable forest management to remove the green house from the atmosphere.
  • Reduce the energy consumption. The reduction of power consumption will play a vital role in reducing the level of carbon IV oxide emitted in the air.
  • Minimize the reclamation of the mangrove for residential areas.

Health and water measures

  • Adopting water sediment measures to reduce soil erosion as well as stagnation of water.
  • Adopting flood control measures, for instance, river bed excavation
  • Management of water resources. Flood management activities will reduce the spread of water-borne diseases.
  • Utilizing land –use controls and soil conservation.

Agriculture

  • Develop new farming systems.
  • Strengthening land planning. Land planning is all about identifying the localities to plant particular species of plants.
  • Use of sustainable production techniques.

Energy

  • Enhancing access to the reliable source of energy. As a result, people will adopt the use of renewable sources of energy that is environmental friendly as opposed to fossil fuels that causes global warming.
  • Promoting the use of renewable power source.
  • The government should enact sustainable bill regarding energy use.

Conclusion

Wrapping up, climate change is a matter of concern. Human causes of global warming can be prevented while the natural forces are beyond our control. We thus need to play our part in adhering to the discussed measures and take precautions regarding the natural causes. But majorly, human activities are the principal cause of climate change around the globe. Everyone, therefore, has a collective responsibility for ensuring that the environment is kept clean. It is paramount to focus the mitigation explored in the presentation in keeping the environment free from pollution. Furthermore, most of the current adverse environmental occurrences can cease and the Earth will again be a good place to live with predictable climate patterns.

References

Allan, J.D., M. A. Palmer, and N. L. Poff. (2005). Freshwater ecology In: T.E. Lovejoy and L. Hannah (Eds), Climate Change and Biodiversity. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp.200-250

A.G. Russell. (2007). Impacts of global climate change and emissions on regional ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations over the United States: Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, pp143-52.

Boisvenue, C. and S.W. Running. (2006). Impacts of climate change on natural forest productivity—evidence since the middle of the 20th century. Global Change Biology 12:1-12.

Emanuel, K., R. Sundararajan, and J. Williams. (2008). Hurricanes and global warming: results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89:347-367.

Feresi, et al. (2000) Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment for Fiji: Pacific Island Climate Change Assistance Programme (PICCAP), p. 123-140

Gibson, Nevil. (2012). "Air Pacific reverts to original Fiji Airways name". National Business Review, pp. 23-50

Juanes, F., S. Gephard, and K.F. Beland. (2004). Long-term changes in migration timing of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) at the southern edge of the species distribution: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 61:2392-2400.

Lal, Brij V (2003). "Fiji Islands: From Immigration to Emigration”. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from on 21st December, 2016

Moore, A.M. and M.A. Palmer. (2005). Agricultural watersheds in urbanizing landscapes: implications for conservation of biodiversity of stream invertebrates. Ecological Applications 15:1169-1177.

Nelson, K.C., and M.A. Palmer. (2007). Stream temperature surges under urbanization and climate change: data, models, and responses. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43:440-452.

Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 37:637-669.

Tagaris, et al. (2008). Global trends and variability in soil moisture and drought characteristics, 1950–2000, from observation-driven simulations of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. Journal of Climate 21:432–458.

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