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Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also referred to as genetically engineered foods (GE meals), or bioengineered meals are meals created from organisms which have had changes introduced into their DNA utilizing the types of hereditary engineering. Genetic engineering strategies permit the development of new traits in addition to greater control over characteristics in comparison with previous methods, such as for instance selective breeding and mutation breeding.[1]

Commercial sale of genetically modified meals began in 1994, when Calgene first advertised its unsuccessful Flavr Savr delayed-ripening tomato.[2][3] Most meals adjustments have actually primarily focused on money plants in popular by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton. Genetically modified crops have already been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides as well as for better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have been developed, though, as of November 2013, none were on the market.[4]

There clearly was a clinical consensus[5][6][7][8] that now available food produced by GM plants poses no greater risk to individual health than mainstream food,[9][10][11][12][13] but that each and every GM food has to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.[14][15][16] Nonetheless, people regarding the public are notably less likely than experts to perceive GM meals since safe.[17][18][19][20] The legal and regulatory status of GM foods differs by country, with some countries banning or restricting them, as well as others allowing them with commonly differing degrees of legislation.[21][22][23][24]

However, there are ongoing general public concerns linked to food security, regulation, labelling, ecological impact, research methods, and also the fact that some GM seeds, along with all new plant varieties, are susceptible to plant breeders' legal rights owned by corporations.[25]

Definition

Genetically modified foods are meals produced from organisms which have had changes introduced in their DNA using the types of genetic engineering in place of old-fashioned cross reproduction.[26][27] Inside U.S., the Department of Agriculture (USDA) additionally the Food and Drug Administration (Food And Drug Administration) prefer the use of the expression genetic engineering over hereditary modification as being more precise; the USDA defines hereditary modification to incorporate «genetic engineering or other more conventional methods».[28][29]

In line with the World wellness Organization, «genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (in other words. plants, animals or microorganisms) where the genetic material (DNA) happens to be modified in a fashion that doesn't happen naturally by mating and/or normal recombination. The technology is normally called 'modern biotechnology' or 'gene technology', often also 'recombinant DNA technology' or 'genetic engineering'.… Foods created from or using GM organisms in many cases are called GM foods.»[26]

History

Main article: History of genetic engineering

Human-directed genetic manipulation of meals started because of the domestication of flowers and pets through synthetic selection at about 10,500 to 10,100 BC.[30]:1 The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired faculties (and thus utilizing the desired genes) are accustomed to breed another generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor towards the modern concept of hereditary modification (GM).[30]:1[31]:1 Utilizing the breakthrough of DNA inside early 1900s and different advancements in genetic techniques through the 1970s[32] it became possible to directly affect the DNA and genes within food.

Initial genetically modified plant had been manufactured in 1983, utilizing an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.[33] Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in meals production and had been approved in 1988 by the US Food and Drug management.[34] In very early 1990s, recombinant chymosin had been approved to be used in many nations.[34][35] Cheese had typically been made using the enzyme complex rennet that had been removed from cows' belly lining. Experts modified bacteria to produce chymosin, that was additionally able to clot milk, resulting in cheese curds.[36]

The initial genetically modified food authorized for launch had been the Flavr Savr tomato in 1994.[2] produced by Calgene, it was engineered to own a lengthier shelf life by placing an antisense gene that delayed ripening.[37] Asia ended up being the first nation to commercialize a transgenic crop in 1993 utilizing the introduction of virus-resistant tobacco.[38] In 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato had been authorized for cultivation, rendering it 1st pesticide creating crop become approved in the US.[39] Other genetically modified crops getting marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant on herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato.[2]

Because of the creation of golden rice in 2000, experts had genetically modified meals to increase its nutrient value for the first time.[40]

By 2010, 29 countries had planted commercialized biotech plants and an additional 31 countries had awarded regulatory approval for transgenic crops become brought in.[41] The US ended up being the leading country within the manufacturing of GM foods last year, with twenty-five GM plants having gotten regulatory approval.[42] In 2015, 92percent of corn, 94percent of soybeans, and 94per cent of cotton stated in the united states had been genetically modified strains.[43]

Initial genetically modified animal to be approved for meals use ended up being AquAdvantage salmon in 2015.[44] The salmon were changed with a growth hormone-regulating gene from a Pacific Chinook salmon and a promoter from an ocean pout allowing it to grow year-round in the place of just during springtime and summer.[45]

In April 2016, a white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) modified using the CRISPR technique received de facto approval in the United States, following the USDA said it could not need to undergo the agency's regulatory procedure. The agency considers the mushroom exempt because the modifying procedure did not include the introduction of international DNA.[46]

Probably the most widely planted GMOs are designed to tolerate herbicides. By 2006 some weed populations had evolved to tolerate some of the exact same herbicides. Palmer amaranth is a weed that competes with cotton. A native of southwestern United States, it traveled eastern and was first discovered resistant to glyphosate in 2006, under 10 years after GM cotton ended up being introduced.[47][48][49]

Process

Main article: hereditary engineering

Genetically engineered organisms are generated and tested inside laboratory for desired qualities. The most common modification is include several genes to an organism's genome. Less commonly, genes are removed or their expression is increased or silenced or the wide range of copies of a gene is increased or reduced.

As soon as satisfactory strains are manufactured, the producer is applicable for regulatory approval to field-test them, called a «field release». Field-testing involves cultivating the flowers on farm areas or growing animals in a controlled environment. If these industry tests are successful, the producer applies for regulatory approval to grow and market the crop. Once approved, specimens (seeds, cuttings, breeding pairs, etc.) are cultivated and offered to farmers. The farmers cultivate and market this new stress. In some instances, the approval covers marketing although not cultivation.

According to the USDA, the amount of industry releases for genetically engineered organisms has grown from four in 1985 to on average about 800 annually. Cumulatively, a lot more than 17,000 releases was indeed approved through September 2013.[50]

Crops

Main article: Genetically modified crops

Fruits and vegetables

Three views of a papaya, cultivar «Sunset», that has been genetically modified to create the cultivar 'SunUp', that will be resistant to Papaya ringspot virus[51]

Papaya ended up being genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus (PSRV). «SunUp» is a transgenic red-fleshed Sunset papaya cultivar that is homozygous the layer protein gene PRSV; «Rainbow» is a yellow-fleshed F1 hybrid developed by crossing 'SunUp' and nontransgenic yellow-fleshed «Kapoho».[51]The New York instances stated, «in the first 1990s, Hawaii's papaya industry was facing tragedy because of the deadly papaya ringspot virus. Its single-handed savior had been a breed engineered to be resistant to your virus. Without it, their state's papaya industry might have collapsed. Today, 80per cent of Hawaiian papaya is genetically engineered, and there is nevertheless no mainstream or organic approach to control ringspot virus.»[52] The GM cultivar had been authorized in 1998.[53] In Asia, a transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya originated by Southern China Agricultural University and was initially authorized for commercial planting in 2006; as of 2012 95per cent of papaya grown in Guangdong province and 40per cent associated with papaya grown in Hainan province ended up being genetically modified.[54] In Hong Kong, where there clearly was an exemption on growing and releasing any kinds of GM papaya, over 80per cent of grown and brought in papayas had been transgenic.[55][56]

This new Leaf potato, a GM food developed making use of naturally occurring bacteria based in the soil referred to as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), was designed to provide in-plant security through the yield-robbing Colorado potato beetle.[33] The New Leaf potato, delivered to market by Monsanto inside belated 1990s, was developed the take out market. It absolutely was withdrawn in 2001 after retailers rejected it and meals processors went into export issues.[57]

By 2005, about 13per cent of the Zucchini (a type of squash) grown in america had been genetically modified to resist three viruses; that strain can also be grown in Canada.[58][59]

Plums genetically engineered for opposition to plum pox, an illness carried by aphids

In 2011, BASF asked for the European Food protection Authority's approval for cultivation and marketing of its Fortuna potato as feed and meals. The potato was made resistant to late blight with the addition of resistant genes blb1 and blb2 that are derived from the Mexican crazy potato Solanum bulbocastanum.[60][61] In February 2013, BASF withdrew its application.[62]

In 2013, the USDA approved the import of a GM pineapple which pink in color which «overexpresses» a gene produced by tangerines and suppress other genes, increasing manufacturing of lycopene. The plant's flowering cycle had been changed to produce for more uniform development and quality. The fresh fruit «does not have the ability to propagate and persist inside environment after they have been harvested», based on USDA APHIS. In accordance with Del Monte's submission, the pineapples are commercially grown in a «monoculture» that prevents seed production, due to the fact plant's plants are not subjected to suitable pollen sources. Importation into Hawaii is banned for «plant sanitation» reasons.[63]

In 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato produced by J. R. Simplot Company that included ten genetic improvements that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried. The changes minimize specific proteins from potatoes, via RNA interference, instead of launching unique proteins.[64][65]

In February 2015 Arctic Apples were approved by the USDA,[66] becoming the first genetically modified apple approved accessible in the US.[67]Gene silencing is employed to lessen the expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus preventing the fresh fruit from browning.[68]

Corn

Corn used for meals and ethanol has been genetically modified to tolerate various herbicides also to express a protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that kills particular bugs.[69] About 90percent of this corn grown in the usa was genetically modified this year.[70] In the usa in 2015, 81percent of corn acreage included the Bt trait and 89% of corn acreage contained the glyphosate-tolerant trait.[43] Corn are prepared into grits, meal and flour as an ingredient in pancakes, muffins, doughnuts, breadings and batters, in addition to infant foods, meat items, cereals and some fermented products. Corn-based masa flour and masa dough are utilized inside production of taco shells, corn potato chips and tortillas.[71]

Soy

Genetically modified soybean was modified to tolerate herbicides and create healthier oils.[72] In 2015, 94% of soybean acreage in the U.S. had been genetically modified to be glyphosate-tolerant.[43]

Wheat

As of December 2017, genetically modified wheat was assessed in field studies, but is not released commercially.[73][74][75]

Derivative services and products

Corn starch and starch sugars, including syrups

Starch or amylum is a polysaccharide produced by all green flowers as a power store. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odourless powder. It contains two types of particles: the linear and helical amylose as well as the branched amylopectin. With respect to the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25percent amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by fat.[76]

Starch is further modified to produce modified starch for certain purposes,[77] including creation of several associated with the sugars in processed food items. They include:

  • Maltodextrin, a lightly hydrolyzed starch product used as a bland-tasting filler and thickener.
  • Various sugar syrups, also called corn syrups in america, viscous solutions used as sweeteners and thickeners in lots of kinds of fully processed foods.
  • Dextrose, commercial sugar, made by the complete hydrolysis of starch.
  • High fructose syrup, produced by treating dextrose solutions utilizing the enzyme sugar isomerase, until a substantial fraction regarding the glucose has been transformed into fructose.
  • Sugar alcohols, such as for example maltitol, erythritol, sorbitol, mannitol and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate, are sweeteners produced by reducing sugars.

Lecithin

Lecithin is a naturally occurring lipid. It can be found in egg yolks and oil-producing plants. It's an emulsifier and so is employed in a lot of foods. Corn, soy and safflower oil are sources of lecithin, although the majority of lecithin commercially available comes from soy.[78][79][80] adequately processed lecithin is normally invisible with standard assessment practices.[76] Based on the Food And Drug Administration, no evidence shows or shows risk towards public whenever lecithin is used at typical levels. Lecithin put into foods amounts to only 2 to 10 % of this 1 to 5 g of phosphoglycerides consumed every day on average.[78][79] However, customer issues about GM food increase to such services and products.[81] This concern led to policy and regulatory changes in European countries in 2000, when Regulation (EC) 50/2000 was passed[82] which needed labelling of meals containing additives derived from GMOs, including lecithin. Due to the trouble of detecting the foundation of derivatives like lecithin with current assessment practices, European laws need people who desire to sell lecithin in Europe to hire a thorough system of Identity preservation (IP).[83][84]

Sugar

The US imports 10% of its sugar, while the remaining 90per cent is removed from sugar beet and sugarcane. After deregulation in 2005, glyphosate-resistant sugar beet had been extensively used in america. 95% of beet acres in the usa had been planted with glyphosate-resistant seed in 2011.[85] GM sugar beets are approved for cultivation in the usa, Canada and Japan; a large proportion are grown in the usa. GM beets are authorized for import and usage in Australia, Canada, Colombia, EU, Japan, Korea, Mexico, brand new Zealand, Philippines, the Russian Federation and Singapore.[86] Pulp from the refining procedure is used as animal feed. The sugar created from GM sugar beets contains no DNA or protein – it is simply sucrose that is chemically indistinguishable from sugar produced from non-GM sugar beets.[76][87] Independent analyses carried out by internationally recognized laboratories unearthed that sugar from Roundup prepared sugar beets is identical to the sugar from comparably grown mainstream (non-Roundup prepared) sugar beets.[88]

Vegetable oil

Most vegetable oil utilized in the usa is produced from GM crops canola,[89]corn,[90][91]cotton[92] and soybeans.[93] Vegetable oil comes directly to consumers as cooking oil, shortening and margarine[94] and it is utilized in prepared foods. There clearly was a vanishingly little bit of protein or DNA from initial crop in vegetable oil.[76][95] Vegetable oil consists of triglycerides extracted from plants or seeds then refined and could be further prepared via hydrogenation to show liquid oils into solids. The refining process[96] eliminates all, or most non-triglyceride ingredients.[97]Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) provide an alternative to main-stream fats and natural oils. The length of a fatty acid influences its fat consumption throughout the digestion process. Efas in the centre place on glycerol particles look like consumed easier and influence kcalorie burning above essential fatty acids on end roles. Unlike ordinary fats, MCTs are metabolized like carbs. They will have excellent oxidative stability, and stop foods from switching rancid easily.[98]

Other uses

Animal feed

Livestock and chicken are raised on animal feed, much of which can be consists of the leftovers from processing crops, including GM crops. Including, about 43per cent of a canola seed is oil. Just what continues to be after oil removal is a meal that becomes an ingredient in animal feed possesses canola protein.[99] Likewise, the bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil and dinner. The high-protein defatted and toasted soy meal becomes livestock feed and dog meals. 98percent associated with US soybean crop applies to livestock feed.[100][101] Last year, 49per cent for the US maize harvest was used for livestock feed (including the portion of waste from distillers grains).[102] «Despite techniques that are becoming more and more delicate, tests have not yet had the oppertunity to establish a significant difference inside meat, milk, or eggs of pets depending on the variety of feed they are fed. Its impractical to inform if an animal was given GM soy by simply taking a look at the ensuing meat, dairy, or egg services and products. The only way to confirm the existence of GMOs in animal feed is always to evaluate the foundation of this feed itself.»[103]

A 2012 literature summary of studies assessing the effect of GM feast upon the fitness of pets failed to find evidence that pets were adversely affected, although little biological distinctions had been sometimes discovered. The research included in the review ranged from 90 days to couple of years, with a number of the longer studies considering reproductive and intergenerational results.[104]

Enzymes made by genetically modified microorganisms are integrated into animal feed to boost option of nutritional elements and overall digestion. These enzymes may also provide advantage on gut microbiome of an animal, including hydrolyse antinutritional factors within the feed.[105]

Proteins

Rennet is a combination of enzymes used to coagulate milk into cheese. Initially it had been available only from the fourth belly of calves, and was scarce and costly, or was available from microbial sources, which regularly produced unpleasant preferences. Hereditary engineering managed to get feasible to extract rennet-producing genes from animal stomachs and insert them into germs, fungi or yeasts to make them create chymosin, the main element enzyme.[106][107] The modified microorganism is killed after fermentation. Chymosin is isolated from fermentation broth, so that the Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) employed by cheese manufacturers has an amino acid sequence that is the same as bovine rennet.[108] A lot of the used chymosin is retained in whey. Trace quantities of chymosin may stay static in cheese.[108]

FPC was the first artificially produced enzyme to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.[34][35] FPC products have been in the marketplace since 1990 so that as of 2015 had yet become surpassed in commercial areas.[109] In 1999, about 60per cent folks difficult cheese was made with FPC.[110] Its worldwide market share approached 80percent.[111] By 2008, about 80percent to 90% of commercially made cheeses in the usa and Britain had been made utilizing FPC.[108]

In certain nations, recombinant (GM) bovine somatotropin (also known as rBST, or bovine growth hormones or BGH) is authorized for administration to improve milk manufacturing. rBST might be present in milk from rBST addressed cows, but it is damaged in the gastrointestinal system as well as if directly inserted to the peoples bloodstream, has no observable impact on humans.[112][113][114] The Food And Drug Administration, World wellness Organization, American health Association, United states Dietetic Association while the nationwide Institutes of Health have actually on their own stated that milk products and meat from rBST-treated cows are safe for individual consumption.[115] However, on 30 September 2010, america Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, analyzing submitted proof, found a «compositional difference» between milk from rBGH-treated cows and milk from untreated cows.[116][117] The court stated that milk from rBGH-treated cows has: increased quantities of the hormone Insulin-like development element 1 (IGF-1); higher fat content and reduced protein content when produced at specific points into the cow's lactation cycle; and much more somatic cellular counts, which might «make the milk turn sour more quickly».[117]

Livestock

Main article: Genetically modified livestock

Genetically modified livestock are organisms from the number of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, birds, horses and seafood kept for human being usage, whoever genetic product (DNA) has been modified utilizing hereditary engineering methods. Sometimes, the aim is to introduce a fresh trait towards the animals which will not occur naturally into the species, i.e. transgenesis.

A 2003 review published on behalf of Food Standards Australia brand new Zealand examined transgenic experimentation on terrestrial livestock types in addition to aquatic species such as for example seafood. The review examined the molecular techniques employed for experimentation as well as approaches for tracing the transgenes in animals and items in addition to problems with respect to transgene security.[118]

Some mammals typically useful for meals production were modified to produce non-food items, a training often called Pharming.

Salmon

See also: Genetically modified fish § AquAdvantage salmon, and Genetically modified fish § AquAdvantage salmon 2

A GM salmon, waiting for regulatory approval[119][120][121] since 1997,[122] ended up being approved for human being consumption by the US Food And Drug Administration in November 2015, to be raised in specific land-based hatcheries in Canada and Panama.[123]

Health insurance and safety

See additionally: Genetically modified meals controversies § Health

There is a clinical consensus[5][6][7][8] that now available meals derived from GM crops poses no greater danger to individual health than traditional food,[9][10][11][12][13] but that all GM food must be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.[14][15][16] None the less, people of the public are never as most likely than boffins to perceive GM meals because safe.[17][18][19][20] The legal and regulatory status of GM foods differs by nation, with nations banning or restricting them, yet others allowing these with widely differing examples of regulation.[21][22][23][24]

Opponents claim that long-term health problems have not been acceptably examined and propose different combinations of extra assessment, labeling[124] or reduction from market.[125][126][127][128] The advocacy group European Network of researchers for personal and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER), disputes the declare that «science» supports the security of present GM foods, proposing that each GM meals needs to be judged on case-by-case basis.[129]

Testing

The appropriate and regulatory status of GM foods varies by nation, with countries banning or restricting them, and others allowing these with commonly differing quantities of legislation.[21][22][23][24] Nations such as the United States, Canada, Lebanon and Egypt utilize significant equivalence to determine if further evaluation is necessary, even though many countries like those in the eu, Brazil and Asia just authorize GMO cultivation on a case-by-case foundation. Within the U.S. the Food And Drug Administration determined that GMO's are "Generally named Safe" (GRAS) and therefore do not require additional assessment in the event that GMO item is considerably comparable to the non-modified item.[130] If new substances are located, further evaluation might needed to satisfy issues over prospective poisoning, allergenicity, feasible gene transfer to humans or hereditary outcrossing with other organisms.[26]

Regulation

See also: Regulation of genetic engineering/> Green: Mandatory labeling required; Red: Ban on import and cultivation of genetically engineered food.

Government legislation of GMO development and launch varies widely between countries. Marked differences separate GMO legislation in the U.S. and GMO legislation within the eu.[24] Legislation also differs with regards to the intended product's usage. Including, a crop not meant for meals use is usually not evaluated by authorities responsible for meals safety.[131]

Usa regulations

Main article: hereditary engineering in america § Regulation

In the U.S., three federal government companies regulate GMOs. The Food And Drug Administration checks the chemical structure of organisms for prospective allergens. America Department of Agriculture (USDA) supervises industry screening and monitors the circulation of GM seeds. The usa Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for monitoring pesticide use, including plants modified to contain proteins toxic to insects. Like USDA, EPA additionally oversees industry testing and distribution of plants that have had connection with pesticides to make certain ecological safety.[132] In 2015 the national government announced it would update the way the federal government regulated GM crops.[133]

In 1992 FDA published «Statement of Policy: Foods produced from New Plant Varieties». This statement is a clarification of FDA's interpretation regarding the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to foods created from new plant varieties developed making use of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology. Food And Drug Administration motivated developers to check with the FDA regarding any bioengineered meals in development. The Food And Drug Administration states designers routinely do reach out for consultations. In 1996 Food And Drug Administration up-to-date assessment procedures.[134][135]

The StarLink corn recalls occurred within the autumn of 2000, whenever over 300 food products had been found to contain a genetically modified corn that had perhaps not been approved for human being usage.[136] It was the first-ever recall of a genetically modified food.

Labeling

As of 2015, 64 nations need labeling of GMO items available.[137]

United States and Canadian national policy is to require a label only provided significant composition distinctions or documented wellness effects, although some specific US states (Vermont, Connecticut and Maine) enacted guidelines needing them.[138][139][140][141] In July 2016, Public Law 114-214 was enacted to regulate labeling of GMO meals on a national foundation.

In a few jurisdictions, the labeling requirement is based on the general number of GMO in product. Research that investigated voluntary labeling in South Africa found that 31percent of services and products labeled as GMO-free had a GM content above 1.0percent.[142]

Into the eu all food (including processed food) or feed which contains higher than 0.9% GMOs must be labelled.[143]

Detection

Main article: Detection of genetically modified organisms

Testing on GMOs in food and feed is regularly done using molecular strategies such as PCR and bioinformatics.[144]

In a January 2010 paper, the extraction and detection of DNA along a whole industrial soybean oil processing string ended up being described observe the clear presence of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean: «The amplification of soybean lectin gene by end-point polymerase chain response (PCR) ended up being effectively achieved in every the actions of removal and refining processes, before the fully refined soybean oil. The amplification of RR soybean by PCR assays utilizing event-specific primers was also accomplished for all your removal and refining steps, with the exception of the intermediate steps of refining (neutralisation, washing and bleaching) possibly due to sample uncertainty. The real-time PCR assays utilizing certain probes confirmed all the outcomes and proved that it is possible to identify and quantify genetically modified organisms into the completely refined soybean oil. To the knowledge, it's never ever been reported before and represents an essential achievement regarding the traceability of genetically modified organisms in refined oils.»[145]

Based on Thomas Redick, detection and prevention of cross-pollination is possible through recommendations made available from the Farm provider Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Recommendations include educating farmers on the importance of coexistence, providing farmers with tools and incentives to promote coexistence, conduct research to know and monitor gene flow, provide assurance of quality and variety in crops, offer settlement for real financial losings for farmers.[146]

Controversies

Main article: Genetically modified food controversies

The genetically modified foods debate is composed of some disputes on the use of food made from genetically modified crops. The disputes include consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, government regulators, non-governmental companies, ecological and governmental activists and boffins. The major disagreements include whether GM foods is properly consumed, harm the surroundings and/or are adequately tested and controlled.[126][147] The objectivity of systematic research and magazines was challenged.[125] Farming-related disputes range from the usage and effect of pesticides, seed production and make use of, side-effects on non-GMO crops/farms,[148] and prospective control regarding the GM meals supply by seed businesses.[125]

The disputes have proceeded since GM meals were conceived. They have occupied the media, the courts,[149] local, regional, nationwide governments, and worldwide businesses.

See also

  • directory of genetically modified crops
  • Genetic engineering
  • Genetically modified crops
  • Genetically modified meals controversies
  • Genetically modified organisms
  • California Proposition 37 (2012) — rejected labeling iniative
  • Chemophobia
  • Pharming (genetics) – utilization of genetically modified animals to produce drugs
  • Regulation of the launch of genetic modified organisms
  • StarLink corn recall in 2000

References

  1. ^ GM Science Review First Report Archived October 16, 2013, within Wayback Machine, Prepared by the united kingdom GM Science Review panel (July 2003). Chairman Professor Sir David King, Chief Scientific Advisor towards the UK national, P 9
  2. ^ a b c James, Clive (1996). «Global summary of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995» (PDF). The Overseas Service the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  3. ^ Weasel, Lisa H. 2009. Food Fray. Amacom Publishing
  4. ^ «Consumer Q&A». FDA. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2012-12-29./>
  5. ^ a b Nicolia, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele (2013). «An overview of the final ten years of genetically engineered crop security research» (PDF). Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 34 (1): 1–12. doi:10.3109/07388551.2013.823595. PMID 24041244. We've reviewed the scientific literary works on GE crop safety during the last a decade that catches the clinical consensus matured since GE flowers became widely cultivated around the world, and we can conclude your clinical research carried out up to now hasn't detected any significant hazard straight connected with making use of GM crops.The literature about Biodiversity plus the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes triggered animated debate about the suitability of this experimental designs, the choice of this analytical techniques and/or public accessibility of information. Such debate, whether or not positive and part of the normal means of review by the medical community, has often been distorted by the news and frequently utilized politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns./>
  6. ^ a b «State of Food and Agriculture 2003–2004. Agricultural Biotechnology: fulfilling the Needs of poor people. Health and environmental effects of transgenic crops». Food and Agriculture Organization of the us. Retrieved February 8, 2016. Available transgenic crops and meals produced by them have now been judged safe to consume therefore the methods always test their security are deemed appropriate. These conclusions represent the opinion for the clinical evidence surveyed by the ICSU (2003) plus they are consistent with the views worldwide Health Organization (whom, 2002). These food types have been examined for increased dangers to human health by a number of nationwide regulatory authorities (inter alia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, the uk together with United States) using their nationwide meals safety procedures (ICSU). To date no verifiable untoward toxic or nutritionally deleterious impacts resulting from the intake of foods based on genetically modified plants have been found all over the world (GM Science Review Panel). Numerous many people have consumed foods derived from GM flowers — primarily maize, soybean and oilseed rape — without the observed adverse effects (ICSU)./>
  7. ^ a b Ronald, Pamela (May 5, 2011). «Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security». Genetics. 188 (1): 11–20. doi:10.1534/genetics.111.128553. PMC 3120150. PMID 21546547. There was broad systematic opinion that genetically engineered crops currently on the market are safe to consume. After 14 years of cultivation and a cumulative total of 2 billion acres planted, no unfavorable health or ecological effects have resulted from commercialization of genetically engineered crops (Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on ecological Impacts related to Commercialization of Transgenic Plants, nationwide Research Council and Division on the planet and lifestyle Studies 2002). The U.S. nationwide analysis Council and also the Joint analysis Centre (the European Union's clinical and technical research laboratory and an integral part of the European Commission) have actually concluded that there is certainly an extensive body of real information that adequately addresses the food safety problem of genetically engineered crops (Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended ramifications of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human health insurance and nationwide Research Council 2004; European Commission Joint Research Centre 2008). These and other present reports conclude your processes of genetic engineering and main-stream breeding are no various when it comes to unintended effects to human health and the surroundings (European Commission Directorate-General for analysis and Innovation 2010)./>
  8. ^ a b But see also:

    Domingo, José L.; Bordonaba, Jordi Giné (2011). «A literary works review regarding the safety evaluation of genetically modified plants» (PDF). Environment International. 37 (4): 734–42. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003. PMID 21296423. In spite of this, how many studies particularly centered on security assessment of GM plants is still restricted. However, it is very important to remark that the very first time, a specific equilibrium inside quantity of research teams suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that several varieties of GM products (primarily maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritionally beneficial because the respective conventional non-GM plant, and the ones increasing nevertheless severe issues, ended up being observed. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most for the studies demonstrating that GM meals are as health and safe as those acquired by conventional breeding, happen performed by biotechnology businesses or associates, that are also accountable of commercializing these GM flowers. Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison to having less studies published lately in medical journals by those companies./>

    Krimsky, Sheldon (2015). «An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment» (PDF). Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40 (6): 1–32. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381. I started this short article with all the testimonials from respected boffins there is literally no medical debate within the wellness effects of GMOs. My investigation in to the clinical literary works informs another story./>

    And comparison:

    Panchin, Alexander Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I. (January 14, 2016). «Published GMO studies find no proof harm whenever corrected for numerous comparisons». Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 37 (2): 1–5. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684. ISSN 0738-8551. PMID 26767435. Right here, we reveal that numerous articles some of that have highly and adversely influenced the public viewpoint on GM crops and even provoked governmental actions, such as GMO embargo, share typical flaws within the analytical evaluation associated with the data. Having accounted of these flaws, we conclude your information presented in these articles does not offer any significant proof GMO harm.

    The delivered articles suggesting possible damage of GMOs received high public attention. But despite their claims, they really weaken evidence for the damage and lack of significant equivalency of studied GMOs. We stress that with more than 1783 published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is anticipated that a few of them needs to have reported undesired differences between GMOs and old-fashioned plants even when no such differences occur in reality./>

    and

    Yang, Y.T.; Chen, B. (2016). «Governing GMOs in the USA: technology, legislation and public health». Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 96 (6): 1851–55. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7523. PMID 26536836. Hence unsurprising that efforts to need labeling also to ban GMOs have now been an increasing political problem in america (citing Domingo and Bordonaba, 2011).

    Overall, a diverse medical consensus holds that presently marketed GM food poses no greater risk than mainstream food… Major nationwide and worldwide science and medical associations have stated that no unfavorable human being wellness effects related to GMO meals happen reported or substantiated in peer-reviewed literature currently.

    Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the planet Health Organization, and many independent international technology businesses concur that GMOs are only as safe as other foods. Weighed against mainstream breeding practices, hereditary engineering is more accurate and, typically, less likely to create surprise outcome./>

  9. ^ a b «Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods» (PDF). American Association the development of Science. October 20, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2016. The EU, like, has spent more than €300 million in research on biosafety of GMOs. Its recent report states: «The main summary to be drawn from the efforts in excess of 130 research projects, covering a time period of over 25 many years of research and involving over 500 separate research teams, is the fact that biotechnology, plus in particular GMOs, are not by itself more high-risk than e.g. main-stream plant reproduction technologies.» The planet Health Organization, the American healthcare Association, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the British Royal community, and each other respected organization with analyzed the data has come on exact same conclusion: eating foodstuffs containing ingredients based on GM plants is not any riskier than eating the exact same meals containing components from crop flowers modified by traditional plant enhancement practices./>

    Pinholster, Ginger (October 25, 2012). «AAAS Board of Directors: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could „Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers“». United states Association the development of Science. Retrieved February 8, 2016./>

  10. ^ a b A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001–2010) (PDF). Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food. European Commission, European Union. 2010. doi:10.2777/97784. ISBN 978-92-79-16344-9. Retrieved February 8, 2016./>
  11. ^ a b «AMA Report on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods (online summary)». United States Healthcare Association. January 2001. Retrieved March 19, 2016. A written report issued by the scientific council for the United states health Association (AMA) states that no long-lasting health effects have already been detected through the utilization of transgenic plants and genetically modified meals, which these foods are substantially equivalent to their old-fashioned counterparts. (from on the web summary prepared by ISAAA)" «Crops and foods produced making use of recombinant DNA practices happen designed for under decade with no long-term results have already been detected currently. These food types are substantially equivalent to their traditional counterparts. (from original report by AMA: [1])/>

    »Report 2 of this Council on Science and Public Health (A-12): Labeling of Bioengineered Foods" (PDF). American Health Association. 2012. Archived from original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2016. Bioengineered meals have already been consumed for close to 20 years, and during that time, no overt effects on human health have now been reported and/or substantiated in the peer-reviewed literature.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status as yet not known (link)/>

  12. ^ a b «Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: United States. Public and Scholarly Opinion». Library of Congress. June 9, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2016. Several systematic businesses in the usa have granted studies or statements concerning the security of GMOs indicating that there surely is no proof that GMOs present unique safety risks when compared with conventionally bred services and products. These generally include the nationwide analysis Council, the American Association the Advancement of Science, while the United states health Association. Groups in the usa opposed to GMOs include some environmental companies, organic farming businesses, and consumer companies. A considerable number of appropriate academics have actually criticized the US's approach to regulating GMOs./>
  13. ^ a b «Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects». The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (US). 2016. p. 149. Retrieved May 19, 2016. Overall choosing on purported negative effects on peoples health of foods derived from GE plants: On the basis of detail by detail examination of evaluations of currently commercialized GE with non-GE foods in compositional analysis, acute and chronic animal toxicity tests, long-term data on wellness of livestock given GE foods, and human being epidemiological data, the committee found no distinctions that implicate a greater risk to human being wellness from GE meals than from their non-GE counterparts./>
  14. ^ a b «Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods». World Wellness Organization. Retrieved February 8, 2016. Different GM organisms include different genes placed in numerous methods. This means that specific GM foods and their safety is evaluated on a case-by-case foundation and that it is not possible in order to make basic statements regarding security of most GM foods.GM meals available regarding worldwide market have passed away security assessments and so are improbable presenting risks for human being wellness. Besides, no impacts on peoples wellness were shown as a result of the consumption of such meals by the overall population into the nations in which they've been approved. Constant application of security assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and, in which appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the basis for ensuring the safety of GM meals./>
  15. ^ a b Haslberger, Alexander G. (2003). «Codex directions for GM meals are the analysis of unintended effects». Nature Biotechnology. 21 (7): 739–41. doi:10.1038/nbt0703-739. PMID 12833088. These concepts dictate a case-by-case premarket assessment which includes an evaluation of both direct and unintended results./>
  16. ^ a b Some medical businesses, including the British health Association, advocate further caution based on the precautionary principle:

    «Genetically modified foods and wellness: another interim statement» (PDF). British Health Association. March 2004. Retrieved March 21, 2016. In our view, the prospect of GM meals to cause harmful wellness effects is very little and several of the concerns expressed apply with equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, security concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed entirely on such basis as information now available.

    Whenever trying to optimise the total amount between benefits and risks, its wise to err on the side of caution and, above all, study from accumulating knowledge and experience. Any brand new technology including genetic modification must be analyzed for feasible benefits and risks to human being health and the environmental surroundings. As with every unique foods, security assessments about GM meals must certanly be made on a case-by-case basis.

    Users associated with the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of hereditary modification by a diverse number of acknowledged experts in appropriate subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion that the sale of GM meals available should be halted plus the moratorium on commercial development of GM plants should really be continued. These conclusions had been on the basis of the precautionary concept and insufficient evidence of any benefit. The Jury indicated concern over the impact of GM crops on agriculture, the environment, meals safety as well as other possible wellness effects.

    The Royal Society review (2002) figured the potential risks to human being wellness from the use of particular viral DNA sequences in GM plants are negligible, even though calling for care within the introduction of possible allergens into meals crops, stressed the absence of proof that commercially available GM foods result clinical allergic manifestations. The BMA shares the view that that there's no robust proof to prove that GM foods are unsafe but we endorse the phone call for further research and surveillance to produce convincing proof of safety and advantage./>

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  144. ^ «EU GMO assessment homepage». European Commission Join Analysis Centre. Retrieved May 31, 2015./>
  145. ^ Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Amaral, Joana S.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P. (2010). «Monitoring genetically modified soybean across the commercial soybean oil removal and refining processes by polymerase chain effect techniques». Food Research International. 43: 301–06. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2009.10.003./>
  146. ^ «Redirecting...» heinonline.org./>
  147. ^ United States Healthcare Association (2012). Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public wellness: Labeling of Bioengineered Foods. «To better detect potential harms of bioengineered meals, the Council thinks that pre-market safety evaluation should move from a voluntary notification procedure to a mandatory requirement.» p. 7
  148. ^ Chartered Institute of ecological wellness (2006) Proposals for handling the coexistence of GM, old-fashioned and natural crops reaction to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs consultation paper. October 2006
  149. ^ Paull, John (2013) «The danger of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to organic farming: an incident study update». Agriculture & Food, 3:.56-63

External links

  • Library resources within collection plus in other libraries about Genetically modified meals
  • Media related to Genetically modified organisms at Wikimedia Commons
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Genetic engineeringGenetically
modified
organismsCropsMaize
  • MON 810
  • MON 863
  • StarLink
  • List of types of genetically modified maize
Potato
  • Amflora
Rice
  • Golden rice
Soybean
  • Roundup ready soybean
  • Vistive Gold
Tomato
  • Flavr Savr
Cotton
  • Bt cotton
Other
  • Apple
  • Arabidopsis
  • Brinjal
  • Canola
  • Papaya
  • Rose
  • SmartStax
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AnimalsMammals
  • Mouse
    • Knockout mouse
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Other animals
  • Insects
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    • Glofish
    • Salmon
  • Birds
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Bacteria
and viruses
  • Ice-minus bacteria
  • Hepatitis B vaccine
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ProcessesInserting DNA
  • Agrobacteria
  • Biolistics
  • Electroporation
  • Genetic transduction
  • Lipofection
  • Microinjection
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • Transfection
Types
  • Recombinant DNA
  • Transgenesis
  • Cisgenesis
UsesIn agriculture
  • Genetically modified food
    • Controversies
  • Pharming
  • Companies
    • BASF
    • Bayer
    • Dow AgroSciences
    • DuPont Pioneer
    • Monsanto
    • Syngenta
In people and
diagnostics
  • Gene therapy
  • Genetic enhancement
In research
  • Gene knockout
  • Gene knockdown
  • Gene targeting
Related
articles
  • Transgene
  • Detection of genetically modified organisms
  • Genetic pollution
  • Genetics in fiction
  • Human enhancement
  • Reverse transfection
  • Transhumanism
  • Genetic usage restriction technology
Regulation
  • Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Geography
  • Europe
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Similar fields
  • Synthetic biology
  • Cloning
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Food safetyAdulterants, food contaminants
  • 3-MCPD
  • Aldicarb
  • Cyanide
  • Formaldehyde
  • Lead poisoning
  • Melamine
  • Mercury in fish
  • Sudan I
Flavorings
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
  • Salt
  • Sugar
    • High-fructose corn syrup
Microorganisms
  • Botulism
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Escherichia coli O104:H4
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis E
  • Listeria
  • Norovirus
  • Rotavirus
  • Salmonella
Parasitic infections through food
  • Amoebiasis
  • Anisakiasis
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cyclosporiasis
  • Diphyllobothriasis
  • Enterobiasis
  • Fasciolopsiasis
  • Fasciolosis
  • Giardiasis
  • Gnathostomiasis
  • Paragonimiasis
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  • Trichinosis
  • Trichuriasis
Pesticides
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • DDT
  • Lindane
  • Malathion
  • Methamidophos
Preservatives
  • Benzoic acid
  • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
  • Sodium benzoate
Sugar substitutes
  • Acesulfame potassium
  • Aspartame
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  • Sodium cyclamate
  • Sorbitol
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Toxins, poisons, environment pollution
  • Aflatoxin
  • Arsenic contamination of groundwater
  • Benzene in soft drinks
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  • Mycotoxins
  • Nonylphenol
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Food contamination incidents
  • Devon colic
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  • 1858 Bradford sweets poisoning
  • 1900 English alcohol poisoning
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  • 1971 Iraq poison grain disaster
  • Toxic oil syndrome
  • 1993 Jack in Box E. coli outbreak
  • 1996 Odwalla E. coli outbreak
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  • ICA meat repackaging controversy
  • 2008 Canada listeriosis outbreak
  • 2008 Chinese milk scandal
  • 2008 Irish pork crisis
  • 2008 United States salmonellosis outbreak
  • 2011 Germany E. coli outbreak
  • 2011 United States listeriosis outbreak
  • 2013 Bihar college meal poisoning
  • 2013 horse meat scandal
  • 2017 Brazil poor meat scandal
  • 2017–18 South African listeriosis outbreak
  • 2018 Australian rockmelon listeriosis outbreak
  • 2018 Australian strawberry contamination
  • Food security incidents in China
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  • Foodborne illness
    • outbreaks
    • death toll
    • United States
Regulation, standards, watchdogs
  • Acceptable daily intake
  • E number
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Institutions
  • Centre for Food Safety
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Emerging technologiesFieldsAgriculture
  • Agricultural robot
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  • Cultured meat
  • Genetically modified food
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Architecture
  • Arcology
  • Building printing
    • Contour crafting
  • Domed city
Biomedical
  • Artificial uterus
  • Ampakine
  • Brain transplant
  • Cryonics
    • Cryoprotectant
    • Cryopreservation
    • Vitrification
    • Suspended animation
  • De-extinction
  • Genetic engineering
    • Gene therapy
  • Head transplant
  • Isolated brain
  • Life extension
    • Strategies for designed Negligible Senescence
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanosensors
  • Organ printing
  • Personalized medicine
  • Regenerative medicine
    • Stem-cell therapy
    • Tissue engineering
  • Robot-assisted surgery
  • Synthetic biology
    • Synthetic genomics
  • Virotherapy
    • Oncolytic virus
  • Tricorder
  • Whole genome sequencing
DisplaysNext generation
  • FED
  • FLCD
  • iMoD
  • Laser
  • LPD
  • OLED
  • OLET
  • QD-LED
  • SED
  • TPD
  • TDEL
  • TMOS
  • MicroLED
Screenless
  • Bionic lens
  • Head-mounted display
  • Head-up display
  • Optical head-mounted display
  • Virtual retinal display
Other
  • Autostereoscopy
  • Flexible display
  • Holographic display
    • Computer-generated holography
  • Multi-primary color display
  • Ultra HD
  • Volumetric display
Electronics
  • Electronic nose
  • E-textiles
  • Flexible electronics
  • Molecular electronics
  • Nanoelectromechanical systems
  • Memristor
  • Spintronics
  • Thermal copper pillar bump
  • Twistronics
EnergyProduction
  • Airborne wind turbine
  • Artificial photosynthesis
  • Biofuels
  • Carbon-neutral fuel
  • Concentrated solar power
  • Fusion power
  • Home fuel cell
  • Hydrogen economy
  • Methanol economy
  • Molten salt reactor
  • Nantenna
  • Photovoltaic pavement
  • Space-based solar power
  • Vortex engine
Storage
  • Beltway battery
  • Compressed atmosphere power storage
  • Flywheel energy storage
  • Grid energy storage space
  • Lithium–air battery
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  • Research in lithium-ion batteries
  • Silicon–air battery
  • Thermal energy storage
  • Ultracapacitor
Other
  • Smart grid
  • Wireless power
Information and
communications
  • Ambient intelligence
    • Internet of things
  • Artificial intelligence
    • Applications of synthetic intelligence
    • Progress in artificial intelligence
    • Machine translation
    • Mobile translation
    • Machine vision
    • Semantic Web
    • Speech recognition
  • Atomtronics
  • Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor
  • Cybermethodology
  • Fourth-generation optical discs
    • 3D optical information storage
    • Holographic information storage
  • GPGPU
  • Memory
    • CBRAM
    • FRAM
    • Millipede
    • MRAM
    • NRAM
    • PRAM
    • Racetrack memory
    • RRAM
    • SONOS
  • Optical computing
  • RFID
    • Chipless RFID
  • Software-defined radio
  • Three-dimensional built-in circuit
Manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • Claytronics
  • Molecular assembler
  • Utility fog
Materials science
  • Aerogel
  • Amorphous metal
  • Artificial muscle
  • Conductive polymer
  • Femtotechnology
  • Fullerene
  • Graphene
  • High-temperature superconductivity
  • High-temperature superfluidity
  • Linear acetylenic carbon
  • Metamaterials
    • Metamaterial cloaking
  • Metal foam
  • Multi-function structures
  • Nanotechnology
    • Carbon nanotubes
    • Molecular nanotechnology
    • Nanomaterials
  • Picotechnology
  • Programmable matter
  • Quantum dots
  • Silicene
  • Superalloy
  • Synthetic diamond
Military
  • Antimatter weapon
  • Caseless ammunition
  • Directed-energy weapon
    • Laser
    • Maser
    • Particle-beam weapon
    • Sonic weapon
    • Coilgun
    • Railgun
  • Plasma weapon
  • Pure fusion weapon
  • Stealth technology
  • Vortex band gun
Neuroscience
  • Artificial brain
  • Brain–computer interface
  • Electroencephalography
  • Mind uploading
    • Brain-reading
    • Neuroinformatics
  • Neuroprosthetics
    • Bionic eye
    • Brain implant
    • Exocortex
    • Retinal implant
Quantum
  • Quantum algorithms
  • Quantum amplifier
  • Quantum bus
  • Quantum channel
  • Quantum circuit
  • Quantum complexity theory
  • Quantum computing
  • Quantum cryptography
  • Quantum dynamics
  • Quantum electronics
  • Quantum mistake correction
  • Quantum imaging
  • Quantum information
  • Quantum key distribution
  • Quantum logic
  • Quantum logic gates
  • Quantum machine
  • Quantum device learning
  • Quantum metamaterial
  • Quantum metrology
  • Quantum network
  • Quantum neural network
  • Quantum optics
  • Quantum programming
  • Quantum sensing
  • Quantum simulator
  • Quantum teleportation
Robotics
  • Domotics
  • Nanorobotics
  • Powered exoskeleton
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  • Swarm robotics
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Space scienceLaunch
  • Fusion rocket
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    • Mass driver
    • Orbital ring
    • Skyhook
    • Space elevator
    • Space fountain
    • Space tether
  • Reusable launch system
Propulsion
  • Beam-powered propulsion
  • Ion thruster
  • Laser propulsion
  • Plasma propulsion engine
    • Helicon thruster
    • VASIMR
  • Nuclear pulse propulsion
  • Solar sail
Other
  • Interstellar travel
  • Propellant depot
  • Laser interaction in space
TransportAerial
  • Adaptive compliant wing
  • Backpack helicopter
  • Delivery drone
  • Flying car
  • High-altitude platform
  • Jet pack
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  • Spaceplane
  • Supersonic transport
Land
  • Airless tire
  • Alternative fuel vehicle
    • Hydrogen vehicle
  • Driverless car
  • Ground impact train
  • Hyperloop
  • Maglev train
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  • Transit Elevated Bus
  • Vactrain
  • Vehicular interaction systems
Pipeline
  • Pneumatic transport
    • Automated vacuum collection
Other
  • Anti-gravity
  • Cloak of invisibility
  • Digital fragrance technology
  • Force field
    • Plasma window
  • Immersive digital reality
  • Magnetic refrigeration
  • Phased-array optics
Topics
  • Collingridge dilemma
  • Differential technological development
  • Disruptive Innovation
  • Ephemeralization
  • Exploratory engineering
  • Fictional technology
  • Proactionary principle
  • Technological change
    • Technological unemployment
  • Technological convergence
  • Technological evolution
  • Technological paradigm
  • Technology forecasting
    • Accelerating change
    • Moore's law
    • Technological singularity
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  • Technology readiness level
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Preventive healthcare
  • Behavior change
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  • Hygiene
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    • Human facets and ergonomics
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    • Nursing
  • Patient safety
    • Organization
  • Pharmacovigilance
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    • Emergency
    • Fecal–oral transmission
    • Open defecation
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    • Waterborne diseases
  • Smoking cessation
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Population health
  • Biostatistics
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  • Community health
  • Epidemiology
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  • Health effect assessment
  • Health system
  • Infant mortality
  • Open-source health care software
  • Public health informatics
  • Social determinants of health
    • Health equity
    • Race and health
  • Social medicine
Biological and
epidemiological data
  • Case–control study
  • Randomized managed trial
  • Relative risk
  • Statistical theory testing
    • Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
    • Regression analysis
    • ROC curve
    • Student's t-test
    • Z-test
  • Statistical software
Infectious and epidemic
disease prevention
  • Asymptomatic carrier
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    • List
  • Notifiable diseases
    • List
  • Public wellness surveillance
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Food hygiene and
safety management
  • Food
    • Additive
    • Chemistry
    • Engineering
    • Microbiology
    • Processing
    • Safety
    • Safety scandals
  • Genetically modified food
  • Good agricultural practice
  • Good manufacturing practice
    • HACCP
    • ISO 22000
Health behavioral
sciences
  • Diffusion of innovations
  • Health belief model
  • Health communication
  • Health psychology
  • Positive deviance
  • PRECEDE-PROCEED model
  • Social cognitive theory
  • Social norms approach
  • Theory of planned behavior
  • Transtheoretical model
Organizations,
education
and historyOrganizations
  • Europe
    • Centre for infection Prevention and Control
    • Committee regarding Environment, Public health insurance and Food Safety
  • India
    • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  • U.S.
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • City and county wellness departments
    • Council on Education for Public Health
    • Public Health Service
  • World wellness Organization
  • World Toilet Organization
Education
  • Health education
  • Higher education
    • Bachelor of Science in Public Health
    • Doctor of Public Health
    • Professional examples of general public health
    • Schools of general public health
History
  • Sara Josephine Baker
  • Samuel Jay Crumbine
  • Carl Rogers Darnall
  • Joseph Lister
  • Margaret Sanger
  • John Snow
  • Typhoid Mary
  • Germ concept of disease
  • Social hygiene movement
  • Category
  • Commons
  • WikiProject
Authority control />
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  • NDL: 01051774
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