Genetic Programming In The Simulation Of Frp-To-Concrete Patch-Anchored Joints Essay


Discuss about the Genetic Programming In The Simulation of Frp-To-Concrete Patch-Anchored Joints.



The title of the dissertation says, “Genetic programming in the simulation of frp-to-concrete patch-anchored joints” whereas the abstract reads that the dissertation is about the new anchorage strength model using genetic programming (Chowdhury & Islam, 2015). Hence, this is the first step-back for the dissertation where the reader is sure to get confused. For the convenience of readers there is a good supply of headings and sub-headings which aptly denote the purpose of the research and a brief idea of the content that is to follow it. Nonetheless, they could have been more appropriately used and also should be made more relevant and concise (Kalfat 2016). The theories and results stated in the dissertation have been properly supported by using authentic facts and data and other researches carried out by renowned researchers. All in all, the whole dissertation with a few exceptions can be said to be a pretty good one with relevant points.


The purpose of the research study has been clearly described by the author in the abstract.The purpose of the study isto use available experimental data on patch-anchored joints to develop a new anchorage strength model using genetic programming.Through the abstract the readers are getting a clear and concise idea about the dissertation (Hehl, Vall?e & Bai, 2009). Although the benefit of the new model has been defined here but the processes and techniques used for the study have not been briefed on.However, the introduction sufficiently gives an overview about future research to be carried out in this field. Furthermore, the introduction does not clearly state the outline for the model development.Additionally, the introduction does not provide any idea about the conclusion i.e. if the research was successful or not and if it served the purpose (Kalfat & Al-Mahaidi, 2014).

First Chapter

The introduction of the chapter was utterly insufficient since the author did not explain the aims and objectives and hypothesis of the research clearly.The first chapter primarily concentrates on the background information along with the summary of the experiment that has been carried out on topic i.e. the patch-anchored joints. But the chapter fails to elaborate the background concepts as well as the information regarding the basis of the experiment (Kara, 2011). Not much effort is to be put by the readers to understand the main purpose of the research study and the path taken by the researchers in order to complete the study has been clearly elaborated in the summary (Kalfat 2016). The first chapter ojnly provides a brief explanation of the problem.The purpose of the research is not clearly defined in the background and the rationale since the author has stated that very limited data sets were used to conduct the research and further work is required in this regard. The model requires to be modified to find out the strength of the saturant adhesive, which influences the failure mode of the anchor along with the overall strength attained. This demonstrates that the purpose of carrying out the research was partially unsuccessful. Though the researchers have given proper explanation about the various independent and the dependent variables and established a proper relationship in order to attain the results, they have failed to set up proper research questions before carrying out the research activity (Lee & Lee, 2014). In order to understand the main purpose of the research study not much of an effort is required and the summary of the research study clearly describes the path that has been taken by the researchers in order to carry out the research study. The first chapters lacks in the adequate description of the background to the problem which lead to the investigation . It only gives a gist of the problem. The back ground and the rationale does not clearly define the purpose of the experiment as the writer has himself said that the research work was carried out in a very limited data sets. They have primarily focused just on the development of the model. Since no clear hypothesis is provided by the authors in the dissertation thus it is not possible to test the hypothesis of the research topic.The scope and the limitations of the research study have been given in the first chapter which facilitates the readers to understand the research qualityand thus, it can be stated that the writers have given an honestevaluation of their research study (Mansouri & Kisi, 2015). The limitations of the research study were more or less relevant and in line with the conclusion. The first chapter contains the overview of the total dissertation and the path followed to achieve the desired result. Even though the objectives are not demonstrated, the overall steps associated with the research have been clearly elaborated and therefore, fewer troubles are involved in deriving the objectives of the research study.

Literature Review

Literature review is the base of the study which determine the depth of the study conducted by the research and with the help of the obtained information in literature review the reliable regarding the study is developed. Various questions have been raised in the literature review section and the authors did not appropriately reference some of the places (Naderpour, Kheyroddin & Amiri, 2010). The literature review is not confined to specific section and is spread to the entire dissertation as various other research works has been quoted and cited in the subsequent sections of the research study. The literature review is though relevant to the scope and aim of the dissertation. Therefore, there is a clear requirement of more in texting is observed (Kalfat 2016). The entire dissertation was based on just thirty references. Since there are multiple works which has been done either on the same topic or on the allied topics thus it is important that the authors should have used more scholarly works in their research study so as to gain more insight into the research works that has been carried out on the topic. Further most of the scholarly work that has been used in the dissertation is very old mainly in the 1990s. And most of the references that have been used are based on the journals and very few references are given from the websites and other sources (Nasrollahzadeh & Basiri, 2014). The literature review does not relate to all the topics of the research study. Further there are no significant value judgments of the literature nor have the findings of the literature review of the different works been clearly stated in this section.


It is clear that the undertaken methodology is very vast and it would be very diffiuct to follow while executing particular study. It would have been better if the researchers have described properly the methods. The extent of the data collected is limited but it served the scope of the research study (Tong & Chen, 2014). Most of the data that has been collected have been from the secondary sources that is most of the datasets were collected from the published data sets. Thus most of the data were collected from the secondary sources and there was either nill or few data used in the research study which were collected from the primary data sources. The sample size of the data is sufficient to draw a significant conclusion. The methodology that has been adopted is proper and appropriate for attaining the purpose behind carrying out this research activity.

There were no significant alternative methodologies considered in the research study as the research study was significantly based on the application of the genetic programming in the development of model frp-to-concrete patch-anchored joints (WANG, ZHOU & LI, 2008). The choice for selecting a particular method of research was justified beforehand and the instruments that has been used in the research study is appropriate for the research study (Kalfat 2016). There were various evidence which shows that the instruments were calibrated such as Numerical finite element simulations were conducted which were able to capture the pre-peak and post-peak response of the patch-anchored joints to a high level of accuracy, once calibrated with the numerical data.

Analysis of result

The outcome of the research study have been clearly illustrated by the researcher and they are as follows-

The average absolute errors (AAEs) for each model clearly indicate that the GP model is superior in accuracy, resulting in an AAE value of 6.7% compared with 11.04% for the SE model.

The maximum error exhibited by both models was _19.6% and _35.7% for the GP and SE models (Yin & Wee, 2014).

Parametric studies on both SE and GP models highlighted similar trends in parametric behavior between the two models (Kalfat al. 2016). However, both equations should be used within the range of parametric values used to derive the expressions.

The major develop objectives have been clearly achieved by the researcher and with the help of the statistical process the results were clearly illustrated. Graphical representation of data helps in increasing the accuracy and preciseness of the data collection process with in turns reflected to the outcome (Zhang, Sun & Fei, 2011).

Conclusion and recommendation

The study provides a clear and precise idea regarding the assessment of novel model a for FRP patch-anchor strength prediction based on a generic programming (GP) modeling approach. It recommended to use wide range of data sets to develop a more holistic model. Therefore, the future scope of research is present.


Kalfat, R. Nazari, A. Al-Mahaidi, R. Sanjayan, J. (2016), Genetic programming in the simulation of Frp-to-concrete patch-anchored joints, Journal of Composite Structures, Elsevier, 305–312.

Chowdhury, M. and Islam, M. (2015). Shear Strength Prediction of FRP-reinforced Concrete Beams: A State-ofthe- Art Review of Available Models. Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 05(05).

Hehl, S., Vall?©e, T. and Bai, Y. (2009). Experiments and Strength Prediction of a Joint Composed of a Pultruded FRP Tube Bonded to an FRP Lamella. KEM, 417-418, pp.505-508.

Kalfat, R. and Al-Mahaidi, R. (2014). A prediction model for bidirectional fiber patch anchors used to enhance the performance of FRP materials bonded to concrete. Composite Structures, 117, pp.51-58.

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