Discuss About The Gartner Other Known Research Organizations?
This is the era of new technologies and models, which are not only cost efficient, but provides a lot of intelligence needed to make the decisions as well as provide convenience. Internet of things (IOT) is one such popular disruptive technology that received much hype and attention in the Gartner and other will known research organizations. However, lack of common standards across devices, unanswered questions about dealing with the security and privacy issues had slowdown the implementation of this technology. Also, it is the main theme of the Industry 4.0, which refers to the current automation, and data exchanged processes in the manufacturing industry. There has been a lot of research going on in this area by technological giants like Google, IBM, manufacturing giants like Robert Bosch GMBH, General Electric and other OEMs as well as top universities like Stanford and MIT schools (Liu, & Baiocchi, 2016). The prime reason for this exhaustive research is that it is the promising technology and everyone is looking for the unanswered questions before it become a revolution.
The purpose of this report is to discuss about the technologic basics, its application, benefits and challenges, security issues as well as how these issues can be solved. The next big thing in Internet of Things is the seamless user interface. Today, people want to minimize the use of traditional interface like touch. The next generation user interface would be face control. Another big thing in the Internet of Things infrastructure is voice control. Today people want that their mobile phones should be unlocked with their voice and they also want to give instructions to their car with voice. It is important to discuss the Internet of Things and its applications.
What is IOT and its applications
IOT is all about communication among the devices by the use of embedded sensors without human intervention. Vehicle to vehicle communication, machine-to-machine communication, wearable devices communication, smart televisions, thermostats are all examples of IOT products. This automation has potential to solve the complex business problems and automate the routine tasks. It will also provide convenience to people so that they can focus on their important activities and mundane tasks will be handled by the systems. It has its applications in almost all the industries from manufacturing to HealthCare to logistics Industry to name a few. In Healthcare industry, there are few warble devices that can measure the blood pressure, heart rate on continuous basis and can alert appropriate person whenever the data does not fall within the limits (Gubbi, et al., 2013). There are smart app locks in which you can lock and unlock your homes using your mobile phones without carrying any key. There are thermostats that can be controlled by apps. Google has developed an APP called Google home where you can associate all the IOT enabled devices together and control them using the app. How about turning the thermostat from office when you are leaving for the home. There are shoes that can measure our speed of walking. There are home lightning solutions based on the IOT. There are smart home kitchens that can trigger a coffee brewing as soon as you had bath based on your daily schedule. Such level of intelligence will really ease the life as well as solve complex business problems when devices are intelligent enough to communicate with each other but this increased level of interaction among the devices without human intervention can be risky also (Dermirkan, Spohrer, & Welser, 2016). It is predicted by the experts that there will be more than 20 billion devices IOT enabled by 2020. The most common and basic representation of Internet of Things can be shown as:
The above diagram shows that different things are interconnected in the model of Internet of Things. The prime force to connect all the things together is Internet. It is important that organizations and individuals must have high speed Internet in place so that they can take the complete benefits of Internet of Things. The key tenet in Internet of Things is connectivity (Drucker, 2015). The entire concept of Internet of Things would fail in the absence of high speed Internet.
Security and other issues and solutions
There are various benefits of Internet of Things. However, there are various security concerns also. It is important that organizations must analyze various security concerns before making any decision. At the same time, it is important that quality must be maintained. There are two types of quality assurance i.e. internal assurance and external assurance that the project manager should focus on for effective performance as part of Internet of Things infrastructure. Internal assurance is for providing the quality report to the quality chief and management while external quality assurance is providing the quality report to the external customers of the project. As per quality assurance, there should be ongoing continuous improvements no matter how small or big these improvements are. Some of the key issues for Internet of Things can be discussed as:
3.1 Data sovereignty: It is a big issue in using the IPT application. This means that data stored in the digital format should be compliant to the laws and regulations of the country. To better understand it, take an example of smart TV and thermostat devices that can be operated by Google Home app. In this case, Google must be storing data about the person as well as various devices. Now, google is storing its data in various clouds whose copies are stored at various locations of the world (Jing, et al., 2014). Now, as per the EU (European Union), data generated within the country and belonging to the people of the country should be stored within the country and thus IOT device has to ensure it. Such type of data sovereignty issued needs to be solved before IOT becomes accepted for widespread adoption. This issue can be solved by each vendor clarifying where they are storing the data, how they are storing the data.
3.2 Data Authentication: IOT devices will have the capability to continuously watch for incoming data continuously. It is possible that IOT device will come in contact with other IOT devices as well as other users (Stankovic, 2014). Data authentication refers to the way of controlling the communication so that IOT devices will communicate only with the authentic users and devices and not with any other device. Therefore, there must be a setting or control in place to protect the data from intruders. This issue can be controlled by having the one time passcode for devices connection.
3.3 Data leakage and loss: Data leakage refers to the export of data by unauthorized users during transfer between the devices. It is a very serious threat and is a big risk to the confidentiality and integrity of the data. Data loss refers to loss of data due to failure of hardware or software or due to natural calamity. Data leakage can be prevented by using DLP (data leakage prevention) (Sadeghi, Wachsmann, & Waidner, 2015). In case of Data loss, it is not possible to restore all the devices from backup for example how the IOT enabled shoes and IOT enabled other devices will be restored unless they are having some internal memory also and if they are making use of some cloud to store the data, then all the risks associated with the Cloud adopting like multitenancy structure will be applicable to IOT also.
3.4 Modification of sensitive information: When data is getting transferred between the sensors, it can be captured, modified and then forwarded to the device. Modification can be of different types like changing content, changing sequence making message meaningless and time modification resulting in replay attack. All these can have serious repercussions. To better understand, think what will happen if IOT enabled medical device is attacked and ECG report of patient is modified (Perera & Zaslavsky, 2014). It could lead to loss of a life.
3.5 Interoperability challenges/Lack of common standards: Due to lack of commons standards, there are often compatibility issues and often the IOT enabled device which is using the Philips Chips is not able connect to the device using Chip of Intel. All such incompatibilities should be resolved for more sharing and communication among the devices (Sadeghi, Wachsmann, & Waidner, 2015).
3.6 Lack of infrastructure: It is another challenge. IOT needs high speed Internet that is available in big cities but what about small to medium cities. There are many things that will not work or simply fail in absence of fast network. Think what will happen to smart vehicle, which is using GPRS in area where Internet is very slow. How the vehicle will react in absence of Internet. This kind of study must be presented to make the use of IOT more convincing (Lee, & Lee, 2015). Moreover, the slow speed of Internet in rural areas us due to constraint of high cost. One way to resolve this is to use Satellite application catapult should be used.
The security challenges could be overcome with an effective security policy in place. It is important that the systems should be protected with antivirus and firewall. There should also be a provision of two-step authentication system that would ensure that intrusion is not possible. It would be correct to say that the combination of different security techniques would help the organizations to take complete benefits of Internet of Things (Da Xu & He, 2014).
The above paper discusses various aspects of Internet of Things. With the above discussion it can be said that there is no doubt IOT is a very promising technology with huge potential but another truth is that every new technology has lot of issues and problems when it is in nascent stages and these issues must be resolved for the widespread acceptance of the technology. IOT is in nascent stages with lot of research going on by big technological giants as well as manufacturing countries and once these issues are resolved, IOT will become a revolution. Each new technology faces a huge resistance initially however the only thing constant is change. It is expected that the penetration of Internet of Things would further increase with time. There could be further improvements in the quality under Internet of Things. In order to implement quality controls, it is very important that organization must define a dedicated a quality plan clearly defining the quality standards that will be applicable to the projects and how the quality requirements will be achieved the cost, time and other considerations to achieve the quality. One of the most important and basic premises of quality control is that quality must be built and planned in the system rather than inspection
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