Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Essay


Discuss About The Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Using?



The aim of this report is to discuss about the inclusion practices for primary school by contrasting and comparing the type of support learners who have additional learning needs and are from culturally diverse background. Moreover, recommendations will be provided for school and support teachers so that the learner’s needs are met. This report will have the findings where the four students will be chosen and their learning needs will be interpreted. Followed by the recommendation part where pedagogical approaches will be discussed. Lastly, there will be a discussion part where there will be a critical analysis of the inclusion strategies.

Education is an important human right as well as a tool, which permits people to marketing themselves free from poverty as well as inequality. In Australia, the inclusive, quality education will assist the children to achieve the sustainable developmental goals by 2030 (Mitchell, 2014). However, the attendance rates of the schools have increased as well as the enrolment rates as the countries are developing rapidly.


In this case, study the students attend a mainstream primary school, which is, located 130km from the capital. This school is mainly situated in a regional city comprising of 15000 people. This primary school has 370 students, which includes prep to year 6 with one teacher for each class. Moreover, there is a learning resource centre, which is situated within the campus which has special educators and only one part time psychologist who are found offering 10hours per week of support to the students of grades 4,5 and 6.

The four students chosen who requires special individual needs are as follows-

  • Jason- He is the student from grade 1 and the main problem he has been encountered with is that he has high visual learning skills but cannot read well in his grade level.
  • Sienna- This child is studying with prep and has been currently diagnosed with high functioning Autism. She mainly prefers a structured and a routine day and easily gets disturbed if encountered with any change in the schedule of the class. Thus, she ends up crying for hours, which results into calling her parents to take her home.
  • Jolie- She is in grade 2 and has recently shifted to this place from China. She is mainly gifted and has high talent because she belongs to a family of high achievers.
  • Dirk- He is in grade 3 and is very energetic but his only difficulty is that he cannot sit for too long in the classroom. He can best concentrate when he is listening to music and are good at those activities, which are hands-on.

Dirk is having symptoms of ADHD, where children have trouble paying attention in their daily activities, gets easily distracted as well as bored before finishing with their tasks (Barkley, 2013). On the other hand, Jolie is a bright student whose learning needs are very much different from others (Pfeiffer, 2012). Sienna comes under high functioning autism and so she will need special educational needs because of her difficulties in social interaction, communication and rigid thinking (Ostmeyer & Scarpa, 2012). Lastly, Jason who is possessing high visual learning skills but lacks the ability to read well his own grade level needs special attention where he can be taught using sights or whole word method than using phonetics. Usually children like Jason can grasp reading easily if they are provided with adequate learning needs (Shum & Crick, 2012).



  • Children like Jason who has high visual learning skills must have special teaching strategies, as they should provide time after teaching so that they can visualize closing their eyes what they read or learned (Heacox, 2012).
  • Teachers must use computers or applications, which have high visual as well as interactive ideas for making these students, learn about their academic subjects.
  • They can also be provided with videos of what they are learned so that they can learn by watching rather than hearing.
  • While teaching mathematics they must be taught using math manipulative where the students can make sketches to display their mathematical thinking (Haydon et al., 2012).


  • The special educators when working with Autistic children should help them by reminding about changes or transitions whenever a change appears (Lee & Carter, 2012).
  • Children with high functioning autism have motor skill difficulties for which it becomes difficult for them to write with their hands thus, they can be provided with tablets or laptops.
  • Classrooms should be more interesting, quite and should have adequate assistance for the students with autism so that they can adjust well in the school environment (Ostmeyer & Scarpa, 2012).
  • These students can also be provided with autism structured opportunities that can help them develop the interactive and social skills with their peers.


  • Pre-assessment should be done and grouping in classrooms should be flexible before meeting any learning need
  • Students must be given space so that they can explore for more ideas and use their brain in more sophisticated and abstract ways (Montgomery, 2013).
  • Good curriculum as well as instructions should be provided
  • The entire class must have the same content but students under teacher’s guidance must given the choices where they can take up assignments which are of various complexity level
  • Each student must be supplied with meaningful works, which can increase and enrich the class discussion (Winebrenner, 2012).


  • Students who have symptoms of ADHD must be sent for further assessment
  • Special supervision is needed for these students than their peers
  • These students must be seating in the class near the instructions or the teacher must stand in front and deliver the instructions, as it will reduce the distractions.
  • These students must be given short assignments, which will help them to attract their short attention span (Anderson et al., 2012).
  • While making them learn the teachers can use films, flash cards or small group works which can involve the interest of the student.


Teachers must have a curriculum based monitoring, which can help them to know about the student’s progress and teaching methods. Moreover, to know whether these recommendations are working or not the teachers or special educators must observe each student and interact with them because a teacher student interaction can help evaluate the progress and retention (Thornblad & Christ, 2014).

Feedback can be gathered from regular parent teacher meetings as well as from asking the students if they need any special guidance. Among the above recommendations, the one, which is very much beneficial, is that every student’s attention should be grasped by including flash cards, videos and films, which are related to their academics so that they can memorize well through visualization.

The students in the schools will have various learning needs, which can be supported if they are provided an inclusive school environment. Every student’s positive behaviors should be rewarded; teachers should have a regular interaction with the parents so that they also get aware of the children’s developments and learning programs. Moreover, every student must get support for maintaining social skills.

However, if students get the adequate support that they require while learning then it will guide the students to create inclusive learning experiences, which guarantee student’s success. When students with different learning needs are given the opportunities and appropriate learning Human resources management then they can effectively reach their full potential while learning.

As per the Australian Curriculum, it is found that it already set the assumptions for what the teachers will teach their students considering every student equal. According to this, Australian students are equally accessible to same content and their achieved will be judged based on the national standards. Every schools as well as teachers are responsible for planning the ways through which they can meet their student’s learning needs and interests.

The Australian Education Act has already given several rights as well as responsibilities to the organizations so that they can receive the Governmental funding for their school educations. This act helps the schools to meet the required needs of all students. They further have Australian Discrimination Act, which actually promotes the rights of the students who have any kind of disability in areas like education, housing, services or goods (Rillottav et al., 2012). This law mainly aims at enhancing special learning needs as well as promotes equal learning as well as access opportunity for individual with disabilities in Australia.


Thus, to conclude this report it can be said that the special learning needs of the students from the case study has been identified. The four chosen students for this case study are Jason, Sienna, Jolie and Dirk. As from the findings part it is very much clear that the mentioned primary school in the case study has a unit of total 370 students among which there are many students who either has learning difficulties or are from different cultural backgrounds. Thus, as recommended these students will need special supervision and assistance from their teachers in a well-structured class environment. Thus, monitoring is important to keep a check that whether the students are improving or not and for that curriculum based monitoring can be effective along with appropriate students and teachers interaction. This should followed by feedbacks from the parents regarding their child’s improvements as well as from the children’s incase they feel they need any special care or assistance.


Anderson, D. L., Watt, S. E., Noble, W., & Shanley, D. C. (2012). Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD: The role of teaching experience. management in the Schools, 49(6), 511-525.

Barkley, R. A. (2013). Taking charge of ADHD: The complete, authoritative guide for parents. Guilford Press.

Haydon, T., Hawkins, R., Denune, H., Kimener, L., McCoy, D., & Basham, J. (2012). A comparison of iPads and worksheets on math skills of high school students with emotional disturbance. Behavioral Disorders, 37(4), 232-243.

Heacox, D. (2012). Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: How to reach and teach all learners (Updated anniversary edition). Free Spirit Publishing.

Lee, G. K., & Carter, E. W. (2012). Preparing transition?age students with high?functioning autism spectrum disorders for meaningful work. Psychology in the Schools, 49(10), 988-1000.

Mitchell, D. (2014). What really works in special and inclusive education: Using evidence-based teaching strategies. Routledge.

Montgomery, D. (2013). Gifted and talented children with special educational needs: Double exceptionality. Routledge.

Ostmeyer, K., & Scarpa, A. (2012). Examining School?Based Social Skills Program Needs and Barriers for Students with High?Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Participatory Action Research. Psychology in the Schools, 49(10), 932-941.

Ostmeyer, K., & Scarpa, A. (2012). Examining School?Based Social Skills Program Needs and Barriers for Students with High?Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Participatory Action Research. Psychology in the Schools, 49(10), 932-941.

Pfeiffer, S. I. (2012). Current perspectives on the identification and assessment of gifted students. Journal of psychology Assessment, 30(1), 3-9.

Rillotta, F., Kirby, N., Shearer, J., & Nettelbeck, T. (2012). Family quality of life of Australian families with a member with an intellectual/developmental disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(1), 71-86.

Shum, S. B., & Crick, R. D. (2012, April). Learning dispositions and transferable competencies: pedagogy, modelling and learning analytics. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (pp. 92-101). ACM.

Thornblad, S. C., & Christ, T. J. (2014). Curriculum-based measurement of reading: Is 6 weeks of daily progress monitoring enough?. School Psychology Review, 43(1), 19.

Winebrenner, S. (2012). Teaching Gifted Kids in Today's Classroom: Strategies and Techniques Every Teacher Can Use (Revised & Updated Third Edition). Free Spirit Publishing.

How to cite this essay: