Five Steps To Conducting A Systematic Review Essay


State the purpose of the study, identify the problem and identify, describe, and critique for appropriateness any research objectives, questions, or hypotheses. If there are none, suggest how those might be stated.


Purpose of the study, and identification of the problem

The definition of nursing is changing in today’s time. There are some iconic role models in nursing profession. Due to this some nurses chose their profession and try to follow the guideline given by their role models. But in today’s time, only a few nurses can live up to the expectations of the patients. The concept of caring between nurses and patients is also changing (, 2015). The paper reviews a test to determine the gap between concept of care of nurses and patients.

Examination of given literature review

The used articles are relevant. The previous theories and studies are described.

All the references are not current. Some are within the time span of 1980 and 2000. 16 references are from the last ten years.

No sources are from the last 5 years.

There is no particular knowledge on relation between care, outcomes and health. There is no certainty of whether nurses and patients have the same definition of care.

Examination and critique of study framework

The framework is explicitly expressed. In here, the framework is based on substantive theory. It identifies and describes relation between the concepts of interest.

The framework reflects on knowledge of nursing. In the nursing profession proper knowledge of patient’s view on different aspects are very important. There is a difference in opinions of nurse and patient regarding to the care given by the nurse. The framework is done to assess this theory.

Appropriateness of research objective.

The research objectives were appropriate.

Critique of variable.

Independent variables are patient and nurses. Dependent variables are caring behavior.

Critique of attributes and demographic variables

Demographic variable was age of the patients.

Critique of the research design.

By research design of any study we mean is its study type. It may be descriptive, review, experimental, meta-analytic. The subtypes include variables, hypothesis, research question, experimental design (Khalid S Khan, 2003). The design study in this case is a review. Specifically, it is a systematic review.

Grouping was done according o patients and nurses.

Some pilot studies were used for designing this study. The present study was on findings of pilot study

Description and critique of the sample and setting.

Research studies which were quantitative and had nurse’s and patient’s perceptions were included in the study. The studies were from scientific journals. There was an excessive amount of studies but those were not used. The participants had to be adults. The setting was always a hospital or institute. Quantitative research designs were followed.

At first, literatures were searched for so that the relevant articles were chosen. A total number of 262 articles were produced. The titles were screened for. Titles which were irrelevant were excluded. The remaining 98 articles were chosen for the next step. Duplicates were considered too. Then, an evaluation was done. Abstracts were checked for inclusion criteria. The ones meeting the criteria went on to the next phase. In the final phase, 51 articles were studied. No extra information was found by searching the references. 29 articles were zeroed on for quality checking. The 29 articles were read and evaluated by a checklist. Some of the studies were excluded that was not meeting inclusion criteria. 5 articles were thus excluded. To check that the exclusion was just, the articles were read twice. No fault was found. The articles finally chosen had in it the caring behavior. The articles had author, publication date, aim of study, sample size, details of population. Synthesis of data was then done by narrative approach.

23 articles were reviewed. By power analysis determination of sample size is done which is done to get effective results (, 2015). No power analysis was done in the study.

The samples chosen had some data on perception of nurse and patient about caring behavior.

Sometimes participants drop out of the experiments being carried out. This is called sample mortality (Yu, 2015). In the present study there was no sample mortality.

Mortality indicators are age-specific rate in death, leading causes behind death (, 2002).

This systematic review followed the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination’s guidance.

The study was set by considering a large number of evidences gathered from research articles. The setting was appropriate for the study because in the study, a review was to be put up on the study topic.

Critique of the measurement instrument.

Observation strategy was used for the systematic review. Nominal level of measurement was achieved.

Q-methodology and Care-Q instruments were used over here. In this systematic review, 18 of the 23 studies used the Q-methodology. Rest used other instruments. These were Caring Behavior Assessment (CBA), the Caring Behaviours Inventory (CBI), and the Caring Dimensions Inventory (CDI). The instruments are reliable and valid.

Procedure for data collection.

Q-methodology and Care-Q instrument were used.

Critique of the statistical analyses used.

Spearman’s correlation, t-test, ANOVA was used. These are the science of exploring and presenting data (, 2015). Different levels of significance were achieved.

The focus of each analysis was on differences between nurse’s and patient’s aspects.

The statistical procedures used were t-test, Analysis of variance, Spearman’s correlation.

The statistics are t, F and rho. In some cases specific results and probability were found.

Purpose of analysis

Statistical procedure



Probability (p)

differences between the perception of nurse and patient



Not given

p = < 0 .0001

differences in the comfort, relationship subscales, accessible, anticipates and trusting

Analysis of variance


Not given

p = < 0.05

Correlation for nurse’s and patient’s group

Spearman’s correlation



Not given

Critique of the researcher’s interpretation of findings.

The limitation was that some studies used for the review had small samples. Another limitation was that measure of both group’s perceptions about caring by the quantitative method were only taken.

The paper is useful in giving an idea on perceptions of caring behaviour.

The paper can be useful for educational programs for nurses.

Further research needs to be done for further knowledge about relationship between patient and nurse in relation with care.


Khalid S Khan, G. (2003). Five steps to conducting a systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, [online] 96(3), p.118. Available at: [Accessed 30 Jun. 2015].,. (2015). Nursing at its Best: Competent and Caring. Retrieved 30 June 2015, from, (2002). Mortality and Sample Selection: Reply to Noymer | RAND. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Jul. 2015]., (2015). Quick-R: Power Analysis. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Jul. 2015].

Yu, D. (2015). Threats to validity of Research Design. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Jul. 2015]., (2015). 6 BASIC STATISTICAL TOOLS. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Jul. 2015].

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