Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation) and Grower (disambiguation).Farmer/>A farmer in NicaraguaOccupationOccupation typeEmploymentActivity sectorsAgricultureDescriptionFields of
employmentMarketRelated jobsRancher (U.S.), grazier (Australia) or stockman

A farmer[1] (also called an agriculturer) is an individual involved in farming, increasing living organisms for food or garbage. The definition of often applies to people who do some mix of increasing field plants, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might obtain the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by other people, in higher level economies, a farmer is generally a farm owner, while workers for the farm are called farm employees, or farmhands. However, within the not too remote past, a farmer ended up being someone who promotes or improves the growth of (a plant, crop, etc.) by work and attention, land or crops or raises animals (as livestock or seafood).

History

Farming goes as far as the Neolithic, being one of the defining faculties of that era. By the Bronze Age, the Sumerians had an agriculture specialized work force by 5000–4000 BCE, and greatly depended on irrigation to cultivate crops. They relied on three-person teams when harvesting within the springtime.[2] The Ancient Egypt farmers farmed and relied and irrigated their water through the Nile.[3]

Animal husbandry, the training of rearing animals specifically for farming purposes, has existed for 1000s of years. Dogs had been domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago. Goats and sheep had been domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine or pigs had been domesticated by 7000 BCE in the Middle East and China. The first proof of horse domestication times to around 4000 BCE.[4]

Advancements in technology

Afghani farmers learning about greenhouses.

In the U.S. of this 1930s, one farmer could just produce enough meals to feed three other customers. A modern-day farmer produces enough food to feed more than 100 people. However, some writers consider this estimate become flawed, because it will not remember the fact that farming calls for power and several other resources which have to be given by extra employees, so your ratio of people given to farmers is truly smaller than 100 to 1.[5]

Types

an US dairy farmer

More distinct terms are generally used to denote farmers who raise particular domesticated animals. Like, those who raise grazing livestock, like cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, are referred to as ranchers (U.S.), graziers (Australia & U.K.), or simply just stockmen. Sheep, goat, and cattle farmers may also be referred to correspondingly as shepherds, goatherds, and cowherds. The word dairy farmer is put on those involved mainly in milk manufacturing, whether from cattle, goats, sheep, or other milk creating animals. A poultry farmer is one who focuses on increasing chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese, for either meat, egg, or feather manufacturing, or commonly, all three. Somebody who raises many different veggies for market can be called a truck farmer or market gardener. Dirt farmer is an American colloquial term for a practical farmer, or person who farms his own land.[6]

In developed countries, a farmer (as a profession) is normally thought as somebody with an ownership interest in plants or livestock, and who provides land or administration inside their manufacturing. Those who offer only work 're normally called farmhands. Alternatively, growers who manage farmland for an absentee landowner, sharing the harvest (or its profits) are referred to as sharecroppers or sharefarmers. In context of agribusiness, a farmer is defined broadly, and so a lot of people definitely not involved in full-time farming can however legally qualify under agricultural policy for different subsidies, incentives, and income tax deductions.

A farmer in Chad.

Techniques

in context of developing nations or other pre-industrial cultures, most farmers practice a meager subsistence agriculture—a simple organic agriculture system employing crop rotation, seed preserving, slash and burn off, or other ways to optimize efficiency while fulfilling the requirements of family members or community. Historically, one subsisting in this way was known as a peasant.

In developed nations, but a person utilizing such strategies on tiny patches of land could be called a gardener and become considered a hobbyist. Instead, one might be driven into such techniques by poverty or, ironically—against the back ground of large-scale agribusiness—might be an organic farmer growing for discerning consumers into the neighborhood market.

Farming companies

fulfilling of this Eastern Illinois Beekeepers Association, 1914.

Farmers are often users of neighborhood, regional, or nationwide farmers' unions or agricultural producers' companies and can exert significant political influence. The Grange motion in the United States was effective in advancing farmers' agendas, especially against railroad and agribusiness passions early in the twentieth century. The FNSEA is extremely politically active in France, especially regarding genetically modified food. Agricultural producers, both tiny and big, are represented globally by the Overseas Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP), representing over 600 million farmers through 120 national farmers' unions in 79 nations.[7]

Income

Farmed items could be sold either to a market, in a farmers' market, or directly from a farm. In a subsistence economy, farm services and products might somewhat be either consumed by the farmer's household or pooled by the city.

Occupational dangers

A combine harvester on an English farm

There are several work-related hazards for the people in agriculture; farming is a really dangerous industry.[8] Farmers can encounter and be stung or bitten by dangerous bugs alongside arthropods, including scorpions, fire ants, bees, wasps, and hornets.[9] Farmers also work around heavy equipment which could destroy or injure them. Farmers may also establish muscle tissue and joints pains from consistent work.[10]

See also

  • Agrarian society
  • Agrarianism
  • Agriculture
  • Agribusiness
  • Agroecology
  • Bonde
  • Corporate farming
  • Family farm
  • Farmers' market
  • Farmworker
  • Gardening
  • Landed gentry
  • Organic farming
  • Pastoralism
  • Peasant
  • Sustainable agriculture

References

Notes
  1. ^ Dyer 2007, p. 1: «The term 'farmer' ended up being initially accustomed explain a tenant paying a leasehold lease (a farm), often for holding a lord's manorial demesne. The usage of the term ended up being ultimately extended to mean any tenant or owner of a big holding, though whenever Gregory King estimated that there were 150,000 farmers into the belated seventeenth century he evidently defined them by their tenures, as freeholders had been counted individually.»
  2. ^ By the sweat of thy brow: Work in the Western globe, Melvin Kranzberg, Joseph Gies, Putnam, 1975
  3. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 514
  4. ^ «Breeds of Livestock — Oklahoma State University». Ansi.okstate.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-12-24. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
  5. ^ Kirschenmann 2000.
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  7. ^ concerning the Overseas Federation of Agricultural Producers Archived 2008-08-07 on Wayback Machine
  8. ^ «Agricultural Safety». NIOSH. December 15, 2014. Archived from original on October 28, 2007./>
  9. ^ «Insects and Scorpions». NIOSH. February 24, 2012. Archived through the original on September 3, 2015./>
  10. ^ Kumaraveloo, K Sakthiaseelan; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina (2018-07-03). «Agriculture and musculoskeletal problems in low- and middle-income countries». Journal of Agromedicine. 23 (3): 227–248. doi:10.1080/1059924x.2018.1458671. ISSN 1059-924X./>
Bibliography
  • Dyer, Christopher (2007). «A suffolk farmer in the fifteenth century». Agricultural History Review. 55 (1): 1–22. JSTOR 40276126.
  • Kirschenmann, Frederick (2000). «just how many farmers will we are in need of?» (PDF). Leopold Letter. 12 (4): 3–4. Archived from the initial (PDF) on 2012-05-02.

External links

  • Media linked to Farmers at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary concept of farmer at Wiktionary
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