Evolution Of Mobile Communications Essay


Describe about the Evolution of Mobile Communications?


Introduction to Evolution of Mobile Communication:

From starting of analog generation of mobile (1G) to the final implemented generation of mobile which is third (3G) the pattern has been changed. The new generations of mobile do not imagine improving the experience of voice communication but it will try to provide the access to user to the new reality of communication which is global. The plan is to attain the ubiquity of communication (everywhere, every time) and it will supply users with the fresh set of the services. The enlargement of the numeral of subscribers of the mobile; over the final years which lead to saturation of wireless telephony which is voice-oriented. From the numeral of subscribers which is 214 million in year 1997 to millions of 1.162 in year 2002, it is expected that by year 2010 there will be worldwide subscribers of 1700 million. It is currently time to discover the fresh demands and it will find fresh ways to expand the concept of mobile. The initial steps have previously taken by 2.5G, which will provide access to users to the network of data (e.g. Multimedia Message Service - MMS, Internet access). In spite of big early euphoria which will evolve the technology, only 3G network which will exist in today’s use of commercial. This network firstly deployed in year 2001 in Japan using the IMT-2000 standard of international standard, with immense success. (Cellular, 2002)

The first generations of mobile (1G to 2.5G): The first cellular system of communication of operational will be deployed in year 1981 in Norway and it will follow the systems which are similar in UK and US. These primary systems of generation will be given the transmission of voice by using around 900 MHz of frequencies and modulation which is analogue. The second systems of generation (2G) of mobile network which is wireless based on the digital band of signaling as low-band. The mainly popular wireless technology of 2G is called as the Global Systems for the Communication of Mobile (GSM). The primary systems of GSM used the spectrum of frequency of 25MHz in band of 900MHz. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), which is the standard which lets numerous access of users a group of frequency bands of radio and it will eradicates the interference of the message traffic, which is used for splitting the bandwidth which is available of 25MHz into carrier frequencies of 124 of 200 kHz each. Frequency is then alienated using the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheme into the timeslots of eight and it will allow simultaneous calls which are eight on same frequency. This type of protocol will allow large numerals of users which will access the frequency of one radio by just allocating the time slots to data calls or multiple voices. (Kim, 2003) TDMA will break down the transmission of data, like conversion of phone, into small fragments and transmits those fragments in the small burst, assigning those fragments into time slot. Today, systems of GSM will activate in 1.8 GHz and 900MHz bands all through world with exception of Americas where it will activate in band of 1.9 GHz. Within the Europe, technology of GSM made probable the roaming which is seamless across all the countries. While technology of GSM will be developed in the Europe, technology of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) will be developed in the North America. CDMA differentiates between numerous transmissions which were carried concurrently on the signal of single wireless. CDMA will promise to open up the capacity of network for carriers of wireless and it will recover the quality of the messages of wireless and access the users' to airwaves of wireless. CDMA will break down the calls by codes on a signal, whereas TDMA break down with the help of time. The result in those cases is an enlarged capacity of network for carrier of wireless and the need of interference for caller. (ITU, 2000) The wireless technologies of 2G can hold some capabilities of data such as message service which is short and fax at data rate of 9.6 kbps, but it will not appropriate for multimedia applications and browsing of web. A maximum speed which is based on theoretical is of 171.2 Kbps is attainable by GPRS using the timeslots of eight at same time. This will be ten times faster than the current Data Service of Circuit Switched on the networks of GSM. All these technologies of wireless are pr?cised in below table. (Acrelet, 2000)

Table summarize comparison between various Technology

Technology of Transport


Transmission speed of Data/ Typical Use

Cons/ Pros


2G technology is used in Time Division Multiple Access

9.6 kbps of data and voice

Consumption is Low battery, but contain one-way transmission, and the pales of speed is next to the technologies of 3G


Cell phone technology of 2G digital is Global System for the Communications of Mobile Communications

Data and Voice. System of this European will uses frequencies of 1.8 GHz and 900MHz. In the States of United will operate in 9.6 kbps of PCS band of 1.9GHz.

About 180 countries of roaming in Worldwide, but messaging service of GSM's short (GSMSMS) only transmits the one-way, and can deliver the messages which are long of 160 characters


Radio Service of General Packet is the network of 2.5G which will help the packets of data

115 kbps of Data; the GPRS network of wireless AT&T will broadcast data between 40kbps to 60kbps

Just like GSM SMS messages will not be limited to the characters of 160


Digital network of 3G is used for GSM Environment of Enhanced Data

384kbps of Data

Unable to acquire licenses of W-CDMA which can be operators temporary solution


Technology of 2G is used in Code Division Multiple Access which is developed for 3G transitioning as Qualcomm

Even though behind TDMA subscribers are numerous, this technology of fast-growing has extra capacity than the TDMA


CDMA Wideband CDMA (also identified as Telecommunications System of Universal Mobile UMTS) is technology of 3G.

Data and Voice. UMTS is being intended which will offer speeds of 144kbps to the fast-moving users vehicles Initially used 2Mbps and up to 10Mbps by year 2005.

Likely to leading the United States, and therefore roaming globally will be good. Wireless AT&T will be performed tests of UMTS in year 2002.

CDMA2000 1xRTT

A technology of 3G, 1xRTT is the primary phase of CDMA2000

144kbps of data and voice

Proponents will say migration from the TDMA which is simpler CDMA2000 than that of WCDMA. (Schiller, 2014)

CDMA2000 1xEV-DO

Data delivers on channel which is separated

2.4Mbps of Data

CDMA2000 1xEV-DV

Integrates data and voice on same channel

2.4Mbps data and Voice

Mobile networks Third generation (3G):

All systems of 2G wireless are based on voice-centric. In GSM it includes the short message service (SMS); facilitating messages of text for up to characters of 160 will be viewed, received and sent on handset. Most systems of 2G will help some of the data over paths of voice, but at glaringly speeds which is slow typically 14.4 Kb/s or 9.6 Kb/s. So in 2G world, voice remnants king whereas data is previously dominant in communications of wire line. And, wireless or fixed, all will be exaggerated by internet fast growth. 3G planning will be started in year 1980s. Original plans will focus on applications of multimedia like mobile phones used for videoconferencing. Today's 144 Kb/s is calling specifications for 3G for the users which will move in train or an automobile, for pedestrians its 384 Kb/s and for stationary users its 2 Mb/s. That is huge step up from bandwidth of 8 to 13 Kb/s of 2G per channel for the signals of transport for speech. The second issue of key for wireless of 3G is that users want for worldwide roam and it will stay connected. Now a day, GSM will lead in worldwide roaming. The third issue with systems of 3G is the capacity. (Tachikawa , 2003) The subsequently step is fresh technology and bandwidth. (IMT-2000) International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 is administrator Union name for International Telecommunication for 3G and it is an intended to initiative which will give access to wireless for the infrastructure to telecommunication of global throughout both systems of terrestrial and satellite, serving mobile phones and fixed users through both telephone networks as private and public. Proponents of GSM put ahead the system of mobile communication which is universal (UMTS), a GSM evolution, as IMT-2000 road. Each of the schemes normally occupies multiple transmission techniques of radio in place to grip the 2G evolution. Approving on occurrence IMT-2000 bands which has been extra complicated and agreement incorporated five dissimilar standards of radio and three extensively dissimilar bands of frequency. In “combined” systems of 3G it will allow to roam anywhere, users will probably require the phone of quintuple-mode which will capable to operate in band of 800/900 MHz, between band of 1.7 to 1.9 GHz and the band of 2.5 to 2.69 GHz. GSM-MAP access protocol of mobile contains GSM. The infrastructure of North American will uses the mobility protocol of IS-41. But rest of infrastructure of landline will help in IMT-2000 which will be flux in next to future. (Hui, 2003)

W-CDMA is differentiated by utilize of the band which is wider than CDMA. An extra advantage of W-CDMA with high rate of transfer, and it will raise the capacity of system and quality of communication by the statistical multiplexing. The W-CDMA employs proficiently the spectrum of radio which will give the greatest rate of data rate for 2 Mbps. Systems of 3G will be IP-centric and it will rationalize an infrastructure of all-IP. (Vasco, 2004)

Future generation of mobile networks (4G): The purpose of 3G will be expanding the fresh protocol and fresh technologies for additional improve the experience of mobile. In disparity, the fresh framework of 4G will be recognized which will attempt to achieve new user experience for levels and capacity of multi-service by incorporating all the technologies of mobile which will exist (e.g. Global System for Mobile Communications - GSM, General Packet Radio Service – GPRS, International Mobile Communications - IMT-2000, Wireless Fidelity – Wi-Fi and the Bluetooth). In spitefulness of dissimilar approaches, where each will resulting from various visions of platform which will come to future presently under examination, the major objectives of the networks of 4G will be stated in subsequent properties: Ubiquity x; platform of Multi-service x; cost of Low bit x; where Ubiquity which means that the fresh networks of mobile should be accessible to user, anywhere and anytime. (Jefe, 2011) Based on the view, DoCoMo NTT, that has previously the base of wide for mobile users of 3G, approximations the numeral of communication of mobile terminals which will expand in Japan from actual of 82.2 million to additional units of 500 million by year 2010. The platform of multi-service is a necessary property for the fresh generation of mobile, not only due to this will the major reason for transition of user, but it also since it provide operators of telecommunication admission to the traffic with fresh levels. As per the cost per bit it must be between systems of 3G of 1/10 and 1/100. To attain the goals which are proposed the very elastic networks which will collective a variety of access technologies of radio, should be produced. (Ashiho, 2003) This network should give bandwidths which are high, between 50-100 Mbps for users of high mobility, to users of low mobility with 1Gbps, technologies which will authorize handoffs which are rapid, a proficient system of delivery over various technologies of wireless which will be accessible, the technique of identifying the access of wireless from the accessible ones. The core of the network must be stand in the Protocol Version of Internet 6 – IPv6, the possible platform of convergence for upcoming services (IPv4 will not give the appropriate quantity of addresses of Internet). (Amit, 2010)

Transfer to the 4G: The information for mobile networks of 4G propose to incorporate approximately every standard of wireless which are previously in use, which is facilitating its instantaneous use and it will poses the interconnection numerous questions will not be answered. The investigate areas will be current challenges of key to transfer existing 4G systems which are many but they can be recapitulate in following: Station of Mobile, Service and System. To be capable to use mobile networks of 4G a fresh type of terminals of mobile should be imagined. This alteration may involve that it should automatically download the software configuration from the networks which are in series. In accumulation, networks of 4G, in opponent to other generations of mobile, it should treat with handoffs of horizontal and vertical, i.e., the mobile client of 4G may move connecting various types of networks of wireless (e.g. Wi-Fi and GSM) and involving the cells of same networks of wireless (e.g. moving involving neighboring cells of GSM). Additionally, several services will be accessible in the fresh generation of mobile such as videoconferences have limit time restraint and there is a requirement of QoS that should not be detectable exaggerated by handoffs. To keep away from these issues fresh algorithms should be investigated and the prevision of mobility of user will be essential, so that it will keep away from broadcasting at same time to all neighboring antennas so that it will waste the resources which are unnecessary. Another main issue which is relates to safety, since it pretends for 4G to join most of the various types of technologies of mobile. As each of the standards has the scheme of own security, the key to the systems of 4G is flexible which is very high. Services will also pretense numerous questions as the users of 4G which may have various operatives to various services and, still if they should be the same operator, they will be able to admission data using various technologies of network. Definite billing using rates which are flat cost or time per bit of fare may not be appropriate to fresh range of the services.

Table summarize comparison between various Generation


Requirements of technology



Requirements which are not official. Technology which is Analog.

Deployed in year 1980s.


Requirements which are not official. Technology which is Digital.

Initial systems of digital. Deployed in year 1990s. Fresh services like SMS and data of low-rate. Main technologies comprise GSM and IS-95 CDMA.


IMT-2000 ITU’s needed mobile of 144 kbps, for pedestrian 384 kbps, indoors 2 Mbps

Main technologies comprise UMTS-HSPA and CDMA2000 1X/ EVDO. WiMAX currently an official technology of 3G.


IMT ITU’s Advanced necessities comprise capability to activate in up to radio channels of 40 MHz and with very huge efficiency which is spectral.

No technology will meets necessities today. IEEE 802.16m and LTE Advanced individual intended to meet necessities.


In this document we will nearby the evolution of the communications of mobile during all its generations. From the original vocation of speech to a data network which is IP-based, numerous steps were completed. From the voice centric which is analog for initial generation to second generation which is digital, the objective was to improve the experience of voice of the user, by enhancing the communication quality while by means of additional professionally the capacity which is installed. At same time it will improve mobility given by handover which is seamless and the extra capacity of data communications (though very small) superior and opened doors to upcoming developments. Several developments will be brought by the generation of 2.5 specifically by GPRS, which enhanced communications of data by sustaining IP in infrastructure of GSM. With the generation of third the objective will be changed from data-centric to voice-centric. Furthermore mobility of total will became an aim to chase. At same time fresh applications will demand additional bandwidth and the costs will be lower.


[1] 1G – First generation of mobile

[2] 2G – Second generation of mobile

[3] 3G – Third generation of mobile

[4] 4G – Future generation of mobile

[5] TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access

[6] FDMA -- Frequency Division Multiple Access

[7] CDMA -- Code Division Multiple Access

[8] GSM -- Global Systems for the Communication of Mobile

[9] UMTS – Universal Mobile Communication System

[10] GPRS -- General Packet Radio Service

[11] IMT -2000 -- International Mobile Communications

[12] Wi-Fi -- Wireless Fidelity


[1] Cellular, 2002, “Mobile cellular, subscribers per 100 people”, International Telecommunication Union Statistics,

[2] Kim, Y., Jeong, B.J., Chung, J., Hwang, C., Ryu, J.S., Kim, K., Kim, Y.K., 2003, “Beyond 3G: Vision, Requirements, and Enabling Technologies”

[3] ITU-R PDNR WP8F, 2002, “Vision, Framework and Overall Objectives of the Future Development of IMT-2000 and Systems beyond IMT-2000,”

[4] Acrelet, 2000, “2G – 3G Cellular Wireless data transport terminology”, www.arcelect.com/2G-3G_Cellular_Wireless.htm

[5] Schiller, J., 2014, “Mobile Communications”, slides

[6] Tachikawa, Keiji, 2003, “A perspective on the Evolution of Mobile Communications”

[7] Hui, Suk Yu, and Yeung, Kai Hau, 2003, “Challenges in the Migration to 4G Mobile Systems”

[8] Vasco Pereira, 2004, Evolution of Mobile Communications: from 1G to 4G,

[9] Jefe, 2011, Evolution Of Mobile Technology: A Brief History of 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G Mobile Phones,


[11] Amit Kumar, 2010, Evolution of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks: 1G to 4G,

[12] Mishra, Ajay K, 2004, “Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimization, 2G/2.5G/3G…Evolution of 4G”

[13] Chen, Yue, 2003 “Soft Handover Issues in Radio Resource Management for 3G WCDMA Networks”,

[14] Toh, C. K, 2002, “Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems”

[15] Pereira, Vasco & Sousa, Tiago, 2004, “Evolution of Mobile Communications: from 1G to 4G”

[16] Kamarularifin Abd Jalil, Mohd Hanafi Abd. Latif, Mohamad Noorman Masrek, 2009, “Looking Into The 4G Features”

[17] 3gamericas, 2010, “Transition to 4G: 3GPP Broadband Evolution to IMT-Advanced”

[18] Fumiyuki Adachi, 2001, “Wireless past and Future: Evolving Mobile Communication Systems”

[19] Giannini,Vito; Craninckx,Jan; Baschirotto, Andrea, 2008, “Baseband Analog Circuits for Software

Defined Radio”

[20] ITU, 2010, “ITU Paves the Way for Next-Generation 4G Mobile Broadband Technologies”. [Online] Available: www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2010/40. aspx

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