Discuss About The Evolution International Conflict Resolution.
Diplomacy has become a critical method used by governments to influence decisions and behavior through dialogue and negotiations. In instances of violence, war or conflict, dialogue and negotiations are very crucial techniques. The mission of any negotiation is to strengthen the nation. Buying more time, ignoring imposed constraints, displaying other offers, avoiding escalations and building golden bridges are diplomatic tactics used to resolve issues and conflicts. Delays and disowning of constraints offer a good excuse to manipulate the cards while the golden bridges allow the opponents to come away from their negotiations with some wins (Babbitt, 24).
Prominent diplomat sells their ideas to look similar to those of their opponents, never allow the opponent to lose face, are polite and set up their opponent’s speech. No one wants to lose in negotiations, economics, an opponent’s victory speech allows them to feel victorious. Politeness is crucial in all forms of communication as it offers room for frank discussions where all parties feel respected and appreciated. One should never attack their opponents or rather make them look bad but should instead help them recover. That way, one is likely to win the negotiations.
Other diplomatic tactics include anchoring the negotiations on some facts, being objective, use of advocates and superrationality. Being objective reduces bias thereby providing a common ground while an advocate will serve as an independent party for neutrality. Superrationality considers alternatives to the negotiations hence allowing for flexibility (Greig and Paul, 104)
War is caused by many factors. The factors include;
Territorial gains. In several instances some countries just decide that some border land belongs to them or they need to own more land either for agricultural purposes or for residential reasons, in other words, they want to expand their territories to a foreign country. On the process of grabbing the lands, war emerges. A good example is the Arab-Israel war that took place in 1967 to 1988 where Israel's army took the territories of west bank from the Jordan government. Israel was successful in owning West Bank (Hirschfeld, 34).
Economic Gain. At times a country may wish to take control over other country’s wealth. Regardless of the cause of war, in almost all cases, there is an economic motive behind every conflict. During the pre-industrial times, some countries fought and colonized others with the aim of acquiring the precious resources such as gold, minerals, and materials used in manufacturing. Finnish- Soviet war of 1940 is a good example. The Soviet army wanted to mine nickel from Finland but when the citizens refused, Soviet Union initiated war. The conflict was resolved through war (Haass, 95).
Political factors are the other cause of war. Opposition to a country’s government has in some cases attempted to change the ruling government because of political and nationalistic reasons. In the United States, for instance, many Latin American countries were fed up with the Spanish government and in turn fought for independence. The end results were independent countries.
Babbitt, Eileen F. "The evolution of international conflict resolution: From Cold War to peacebuilding." Negotiation Journal business.4 (2009): 539-549.
Greig, J. Michael, and Paul F. Diehl. International mediation. Polity, 2012.
Haass, Richard N. "Con?icts Unending." (1990).
Hirschfeld, Yair P. Track-two diplomacy toward an Israeli-Palestinian solution, 1978-2014. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2014.