Evaluation Of SDLC Models For Enterprises Essay

Question:

Compare and contrast the waterfall, spiral, and concurrent models. Determine which model is most appropriate for start-up, medium, and large organization. Evaluate of each software process model.

Answer:

Introduction

This particular assignment focuses on analyzing different software development model such as waterfall model, spiral model, concurrent model, etc. However, this study demonstrates the comparison and contrast between above mentioned three models. Moreover, this report also determines the most appropriate model based on the working types of organizations. Finally evaluations of the models are done for deeper understanding.

Comparison of Different Models (Waterfall, Spiral and Concurrent)

1. Waterfall model

Waterfall model is the oldest software design model and is often termed as the classical approach. Waterfall model is linear and sequential (Alshamrani & Bahattab, 2015). Each level represents a complete step, and the final product is obtained after completion of all the steps.

2. Spiral method

The spiral method is one of the most used SDLC processes in industry. The spiral method is an iterative development process in which the steps are followed iteratively to reach the outcome decided by (Shukla & Saxena, 2013).

3. Concurrent model

Concurrent development model also known as concurrent engineering is a series of framework activities involving software engineering tasks and associated states (Highsmith, 2013). This model is best suited for software that is large and depends on multiple teams for its development.

Comparison between the three models:

Waterfall model

Spiral model

Concurrent model

Model sequence

Linear

Continuous Sequential

Iterative enhancement

Understandability

Simple

Moderate

Complex

Testing

After completion

Continuous

Continuous

Development phases

Previous phase should be completed before moving to next phase.

Independent phases

Phases depend upon each other.

Connection between phases

No connection

Cyclic

Interconnected

Manageability

Easy

Moderate

Difficult

Model rigidity

Very high

Moderate

Extremely flexible

Human resource requirement

Low

Moderate

High

The above table gives the general overview about the three software model. The comparison shows the advantages and disadvantages of the models over each other. The waterfall model is simpler to understand and is easily manageable compared to other two models but fail to provide the adaptability offered by other two methods. The sequential nature of the spiral and concurrent model is the reason for adaptability. Spiral model updation is done after completion of each phase and finally user update is taken for final update. In concurrent model the phases are interdependent hence update in one phase alters the output for other system, hence making it complex for implementation and need of specialized human resources.

Determination of Models for Different Businesses

The various business models like start-up, medium and large have different software requirements.

Start-up firms have specific requirements like low cost, fast delivery, small and precise needs, and simplicity (Jaspers & Hak, 2014). The waterfall model is easier to understand and implement, it is cost efficient and fast with smaller requirements. Hence, waterfall model of software development is the best-suited model for start-up enterprises.

Medium enterprises, have necessary capital for development of software. The demands of these companies do change due to expansion; hence the need revolves around better serviceability, lesser risk and faster deliverables (Park Kwag & Bae, 2016). The spiral method of SDLC satisfies all the criteria like better serviceability, lower risks and faster delivery with involved costs. So the best-suited software development model for this purpose is the spiral method.

Large organizations have greater needs and can hire a better workforce for software development. Hence the best model for such organization is the concurrent development model (Pierce & Davis, 2015). The concurrent model is complex and needs a large workforce for its completion; also the product development is faster and is easily adaptable. Therefore the concurrent model is best suited for large enterprises.

Evaluation of each Software Model

There are various software development models that satisfies different user requirement. The three models are evaluated here for deeper understanding.

1. Waterfall model

The model which is oldest of all is linear and sequential. The various steps that are involved in the SDLC are the analysis of requirement, design, coding and development, testing, operation and maintenance (Balaji & Murugaiyan, 2012). Each level represents a complete step, and the final product is obtained after completion of all the steps. Hence reviewing and verification is done at each phase before proceeding to another (Alshamrani & Bahattab, 2015). The waterfall model can be seen in the following diagram.


Figure1: Represents the waterfall model

(Source: McCormick, 2012, pp. 5)

2. Spiral model

Spiral model is the most used SDLC model in industry. The spiral method is an iterative development process in which the four steps namely, identification, design, construction and evaluation is done iteratively to reach the outcome. This method is very costly as the product life cycle takes high time for implementation (Alshamrani & Bahattab, 2015). Also, the product is developed over time to meet new requirements and hence is most versatile SDLC method. The figure below shows the diagrammatic representation of the spiral method.


Figure 2: Spiral SDLC method

(Source: Shukla & Saxena, 2013, pp.1)

3. Concurrent model

The concurrent model is one of the most advanced models and is most adaptable. In this model user interaction is possible while tasks are running. Since the processes are independent long running processes don’t delay the short running processes. The independent processes leads to parallelism hence ensure maximum utilization of resources. The other disadvantage apart from the above is controllability. The disadvantages of the model are system stability, liveness i.e. always active, non determinism and high resource consumption. The model diagram is shown below:


Figure 3: Concurrent model diagram

(Source: Hansen, 2013, pp. 259)

The figure shows the high resource requirement of the model and high model complexity.

Conclusion

Every organization has different requirements, the deliverables and some resources decide the course of action for software development. The reviewed models were waterfall model, spiral model and concurrent model. The models were compared and contrasted for a better understanding. Further suitable development model was suggested for a start-up, medium and large organization based on the knowledge. Based on the advantages waterfall model was recommended for start-up businesses, the spiral method of modeling was suggested for medium business, and concurrent method was proposed for large business.

Reference

Abdullah, D. (2015). Digital Library Information System Development at Malikussaleh University with SDLC (System Development Life Cycle).International Journal of Computing and Technology-IJCAT, 2(7), 232-239.

Alshamrani, A., & Bahattab, A. (2015). A Comparison Between Three SDLC Models Waterfall Model, Spiral Model, and Incremental/Iterative Model.International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 12(1), 106.

Balaji, S., & Murugaiyan, M. S. (2012). Waterfall vs. V-Model vs. Agile: A comparative study on SDLC. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 2(1), 26-30.

Hansen, P. B. (Ed.). (2013). The origin of concurrent programming: from semaphores to remote procedure calls. Springer Science & Business Media.

Highsmith, J. (2013). Adaptive software development: a collaborative approach to managing complex systems. Addison-Wesley.

Jaspers, F., & Hak, T. (2014). STARTUP BUSINESS MODELING: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY (INTERACTIVE PAPER). Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 34(4), 14

McCormick, M. (2012). Waterfall vs. Agile Methodology. Retrieved February 12, 2014.

Park, E. Y., Kwag, D. G., & Bae, S. U. (2016). A Study on the Market Competitiveness of Small-to-Medium Sized Businesses Utilizing CBMI (Convergence Business Model Innovation). Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(26).

Pierce, R. D., & Davis, M. A. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,069,820. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Shukla, A. K., & Saxena, A. (2013). Which Model is best for the Software Project?" A Comparative Analysis of Software Engineering Models".International Journal of Computer Applications, 76(11).

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