Essentials of nursing and practice Essay

This piece of work will be based on the assessment of the aspect of the physiological need, vital signs that all patients will experience on the Orthopaedic ward where I was placed in during my first year studying Adult Nursing. I will then underpin the theory of the assessment process of the patient’s reason for the physiological need and its relationship to the health care needs of the service user, identifying the priorities of care the patient requires. The strengths and weaknesses of the assessment tools will then be highlighted to then be explained thoroughly guaranteeing that I will include the physiological assessment. I will also take into consideration how a range of communication skills were used in the assessment process with evidence-based references to the linking theory. The role of observation skills and recording skills will be assessed as I’ll be explained how they are used; displaying these skills to then give a detailed understanding of how they are seen in this assignment. During my experience on the Orthopaedic ward, I was able to experience patients who are recovering from mostly hip and knee replacements. I was supervised by my mentor as I was pre-assessing a 79-year-old gentleman who recently went under the procedure of a hip replacement, resulting this patient going under general anaesthetic due to his phobia of blood. (J Qual Health Care 2015)

Monitoring vital signs is a component to patient care in acute hospitals. The five vital signs are blood pressure (BP), pulse, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (spO2) and temperature. These signs are used to monitor patients progress during their stay in the hospital. (The Johns Hopkins University 2019) Any nursing professional will carry out vital observations on any patient that has had any surgical procedure as it is an important component of care, it is a protocol of nurses need to follow as it provides critical information needed to make life-saving decisions and to then confirm feedback on any treatments performed. (The university of Utah 2018) Linking back to my experience, the gentleman who recently came back from theatre was needed a set of vital signs observations, this is to then ensure that any complications that may occur can be immediately be taken into consideration by myself or my mentor as all vital signs can be life threatening if not resulting in the normal range. (J Qual Health Care 2015) To the right, the patients results are shown in the table. Evaluating the gentleman’s results, his oxygen levels are extremely low, the next action to take would be immediately to give the patient a nasal cannula to give him 2L of oxygen ensuring the patient is comfortable and calm. Expanding this further, blood oxygen levels is the amount of oxygen circulating in the patient’s blood, which is carried by red blood cells. When the percentage is significantly low, complications occur such as the main organs are not getting enough oxygen so they will start to starve of oxygen resulting in brain damage, such as temporary loss of memory, commonly called Hypoxia. (Hypoxia and Hypoxemia 2005) Also by looking back to the patients results, this blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate all look health with no concerns, but he is cold, his temperate is below average so this gentleman requires some blankets and a warm drink to ensure his temperature rises. (Fire Engineering 2007) Being sure that we concentrate on the patients’ blood pressure because lots of complications may occur if not taken into consideration, for example undertaking his blood pressure to identify risk of coronary heart disease or signs of dehydration. Due to these complications, myself and my mentor ensured that we did regular vital signs observations to keep a check on his oxygen levels and temperature. (JG Chester 2011)

The nursing process has a great impact within the NHS, in 1985, Ida Jean Orlando started the nursing process that nurses still follow and obey to this day. It is defined as a systematic approach to care using the fundamental principles of important thinking, relationship-centred approaches to treatment, goals and evidence-based practice. (Nursing Theory 2016) Linking to this, the Holistic model provides the basis for compassionate, quality-based care. In all aspects of nursing there are five steps. These are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. (understanding the nursing process 2017) These can be in relation to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, explaining his theory, Maslow proposed five different kinds of human needs, beginning with the most basic: survival. Physiological needs, such as food and shelter, are followed by needs related to safety. (Kendra Cherry 2018) Going on to how I respected the patient’s privacy during his vital signs, I introduced myself with my full name and position, I then asked the patient if I could check his vital signs, follow what they are and what I need to do, making myself clear that I am asking for permission to carry out this personal procedure. This then ensures the patient feels comfortable and reassured as he knows who I am and what I am going to do. Respecting the individuals privacy, I asked permission to close the curtain around his bed to ensure that no other individual was participating, only myself, the patient and under the supervisor of my mentor; guaranteeing that my voice is low enough for other patients not to overhear but loud enough so the patient can clearly understand exactly what I am saying and doing. As a nurse it is so important to follow the Equality Act 2010. According to, this act is defined as it legally protects individuals from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society, making the law easier to understand, it replaced previous anti-discrimination laws with a single act. (Nursing and Midwifery Council 2011) For example, as a student nurse, I will always treat every individual that I have provided care, respect and compassion for equally. Compassion is a significant aspect in adult nursing. (Fradd, 2007) The role of a compassionate health practitioner has an effect on patient’s behaviour because it allows them to understand that we are providing honesty, listening skills, integrity and excellence. Professionalism in nursing always refers to the six C’s: compassion, competence, courage, communication, commitment and care. (NHS England 2016) During my time on placement, I provided compassionate care for the 79-year-old patient because it shows professionalism, compassion and dedication within the work place. I accomplished this by being certain that the patient felt comfortable by communicating with him, being empathetic to ensure that ill get a better understanding of what he is going though, I built a relationship with the patient through humour and getting an understanding of his personal background. (Nursing Times 2010)

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