Essay History: Indigenous Self Determination

Question:

Write the Essay on History for Indigenous Self Determination.

Answer:

Introduction

The Northern Territory National Emergency Response is also the intervention and is regarded as a package of changes to welfare stipulation as well as law enforcement. The federal government in Australia under John Howard in the year 2007 introduced it in order to address charges related to uncontrolled child sexual abuse. The intervention is referred to as the idiomatic name for the Northern Territory National Emergency Response. It is regarded as a broad range of complicated as well as controversial measures that was introduced when Howard government endorsed the Northern Territory National Emergency Response Act with bipartisan support (Altman and Russell 2012).

Discussion

The intervention was mostly introduced to address the inconsistent levels of violence in homegrown communities in the Northern Territory. It was also introduced to address the endemic disadvantage suffered in terms of housing, health and employment. The Intervention was a $587 million package of legislation that made several changes that are affecting particular Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory. It included constraints on alcohol, changes to wellbeing payments as well as attainment of parcels of land and education and employment. The package of Northern Territory National Emergency Response mainly deals with the response to the Territory publication of the government. The Northern Territory Intervention was originally outlined with Indigenous Affairs Minister Mal Brough who was considered as the principal architect (Rickard et al. 2012).

The intervention is not viable as it is unintended in terms of the capacity of Commonwealth to deliver. It mostly bears in mind that the Commonwealth has delivered programs to isolated NT for decades. However, the intervention did not prove to be good. The introduction of NTER leads to the lack of community conference that was the reason for deep concern. Aboriginal individual in the Northern Territory had long been calling for better corporation with and investment by governments to sustain communities to act to enhance their level of comfort as well as the opportunities accessible for their futures (Morphy and Morphy 2013).

The intervention is unlikely to improve the long-term health of aboriginal individuals. The planned health outcome of the Northern Territory intervention was likely to lead to improvement of the health and wellbeing as well as longer life expectancy. However, it is unlikely to be achieved. The Australian Association of Indigenous Doctors mainly undertakes a health impact evaluation. They make the use of methods that are endorsed by the World Health Organization that predicts that predicts the conclusion of the potential health (Gibson et al. 2015).

It has been found that the probable benefits to physical condition were mostly compensated by unenthusiastic impacts on psychological health, social health as well as interests. With longer centralist-style of interference, the more tiptoe mistrust of governments will become well established. It also has thoughtful long-term negative impact on the ability of the government to operate with Aboriginal communities to accomplish collective objectives. It also had a negative impact on cultural incorporation as well as welfare of Aboriginal men (Lawrence et al. 2013).

The intervention by the Northern Territory has been unsuccessful to bring substantial reform in any of the areas that has been enclosed by the Close the Gap goals. It has also failed to convene the global human rights of Australia. Each Close the Gap procedures were marked failed except that of education. The rate of literacy as well as numeracy did not improve since the year 2008 after the intervention took place. As a result, homegrown employment decreased. The intervention was also not able to meet the target of closing the life expectancy gap between homegrown as well as non-homegrown individuals in Australia within a generation. It was also not able to decrease the gap in employment results. The other targets that the intervention was not able to meet included the decrease of gap in child mortality rates (Zhao et al. 2013).

According to a most recent Australian Bureau of Statistics data, it was found that 3 percent of the population was made up of homegrown individuals whereas, 27 percent consisted of the penal complex population and 52 percent of the individuals were in imprisonment. In the Northern Territory, indigenous and Torres Strait Islander individuals make up 86 percent of the adult criminal population and 96.9 percent of adolescent people in custody. As a result, during the start of the intervention the rate of imprisonment increased to 41 percent. The increase of the problems related to child sexual mistreatment started affecting the individuals who are indigenous and led to poverty and discrimination (Cowan 2013).

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the main reason that led to the increase in imprisonment was due to the increase in family violence that led to crisis. The rate of assaults as well as child abuse increased drastically during the intervention. It has been concluded that Northern Territory Intervention also had a negative impact on cultural incorporation as well as welfare of Aboriginal men. It was reported that child mistreatment decreased in the NT however; the rates of self harm as well as suicide by homegrown individuals increased by more than 50 percent. On the other hand, the planned health outcome of the Northern Territory intervention was likely to lead to improvement of the health and wellbeing as well as longer life expectancy.

References

Altman, J. and Russell, S., 2012. Too much'dreaming': Evaluations of the Northern Territory National Emergency Response Intervention 2007-2012.

Cowan, A., 2013. UNDRIP and the intervention: Indigenous self-determination, participation, and racial discrimination in the northern territory of Australia. Pac. Rim L. & Pol'y J., 22, p.247.

Gibson, O., Lisy, K., Davy, C., Aromataris, E., Kite, E., Lockwood, C., Riitano, D., McBride, K. and Brown, A., 2015. Enablers and barriers to the implementation of primary health care interventions for Indigenous people with chronic diseases: a systematic review. Implementation Science, 10(1), p.1.

Lawrence, J.G., Carapetis, J.R., Griffiths, K., Edwards, K. and Condon, J.R., 2013. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease incidence and progression in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1997 to 2010. Circulation, 128(5), pp.492-501.

Morphy, F. and Morphy, H., 2013. Anthropological theory and government policy in Australia's Northern Territory: the hegemony of the “mainstream”. American Anthropologist, 115(2), pp.174-187.

Rickard, G., Lenthall, S., Dollard, M., Opie, T., Knight, S., Dunn, S., Wakerman, J., MacLeod, M., Seiler, J. and Brewster-Webb, D., 2012. Organisational intervention to reduce occupational stress and turnover in hospital nurses in the Northern Territory, Australia. Collegian, 19(4), pp.211-221.

Zhao, Y., You, J., Wright, J., Guthridge, S.L. and Lee, A.H., 2013. Health inequity in the Northern Territory, Australia. International journal for equity in health, 12(1), p.1.

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