Epidemiology: Muscle Spasms And Stiffness Essay


Discuss about the Epidemiology for Muscle Spasms and Stiffness.



Various preventive programs are used in indigenous health across the country. One of them most common among children is the child immunization program against tetanus through the issuance of tetanus toxoid vaccine. Tetanus is a non-infectious disease that is contracted by an individual through open wounds. It occurs as a result of bacteria known as clostridium tetani gaining access into the body of an individual. It then releases toxins that cause the actual symptoms that include muscle spasms, stiffness, and difficulty in swallowing (Gilligan, Lawrence, Clayton & Rowland, 2012). It usually causes life-long disabilities and in some instances, it may result in death. According to Gilligan et al. (2012), in the child immunization program in the country, this vaccine is offered as 2, 4, 6, 18 months and 4 years after birth as a way of preventing the disease. It is provided as a combination of other vaccines against other diseases namely polio, pertussis, hepatitis B, diphtheria, and polio.

As stipulated by Parfrey & Barrett (2015), this kind of intervention is primary level of disease prevention which is the lowest, cheapest and most significant level of health care. Its main purpose is to provide mechanisms to deter and avoid the disease before it actually occurs. It increases the body’s resistance to clostridium tetani’s toxins and thus reducing the cost of health care and chances of disability. With regard to the social determinants causation framework, this prevention program fits in the health and healthcare determinant domain. This domain involves ensuring access to health care especially the primary health care that aims at preventing disease within a population. In addition, health literacy if offered through educative forums to create insight and understanding on the essence of the immunization programs and the various impacts it has on people’s health.


Gilligan, J. E., Lawrence, J. R., Clayton, D., & Rowland, R. (January 01, 2012). Tetanus and the evolution of intensive care in Australia, Critical Care, and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine, 14, 4, 316-23.

Parfrey, P. S., & Barrett, B. (2015), Clinical epidemiology: Practice and methods. New York: Humana Press: Springer

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