Environmental Sustainable Development Essay

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Write an essay on "Environmental Sustainable Development".

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Introduction

Environmental policies in sustainability

In most cases globally, ecological problems were analyzed separately; of them only their symptoms were examined, but their causes were neglected. Currently, the debate around the issue has been opened and includes analysis of the interrelations of the environment surrounding and characterizes the life of man, so it has full correspondence with socioeconomic status [10]. It is from this global perspective that an alternative arises: the development model should not exploit the natural environment but handle; it should propose a use of natural resources to allow regeneration of ecological cycles. The situation of environmental degradation that found the planet has made a considerable number of nations aware of the need to rethink environmental sustainability. Worldwide level public bodies have been created to address these problem institutions and from civil society have emerged a number of organizations working on environmental.
Environmental policy directions and key contents
In a broad way, we can also define Sustainable Development for environmental policy directions as a process of constant and equitable quality improvement of life of people, founded on appropriate measures of prioritized policies that help in improvement of the environment for sustainable development. Conservation and protection of the environment and natural resources,
way to meet the needs and aspirations of generations present without compromising the ability to continue to do so in the future.

Key environmental policy directions include ;

  • Global environmental policy which is the policy implemented and outlined globally to set the key areas of conservation of the environment. Global protocols like the Kyoto protocol signed and ratified in Japan is among the many global environmental policies.
  • Environmental regulation is viewed as ideologies rather than regulations that could help in protecting the environment from risks and exposures due to industrialization, pollution and environmental mismanagement.
  • Reduction of air pollution is also a key environmental policy directive. Due to increase in industrialization, an increase in world’s demography and population among other factors has led to increase in air pollution [11].
  • Risk and control policies are the underlying controls meant to curb environmental misuse. They are risks and control measures that are basically aimed at raising awareness on cause-effect of factors affecting the environment.
  • Depletion of the ozone layer which is the ‘blanket’ covering the earth from extreme rays from the sun which can bring harmful effects to the people and biodiversity as a whole with an example being skin cancer and severe drought and famine.
  • Emission of hazardous wastes and affluent which affect the ecology

In addition, the concept multiple shortcomings and gaps in the draft Plan on environmental issues were identified and underlined how its hierarchy had a decline from environmental policy came gradually building since the issuance of the policy.
Rules of the Plan they were made: principles, environmental planning in territorial management, and integrated management of water resources [7], knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of.

Analysis why the directions are necessary
The world has agreed that the environmental issue of high importance and concern in environmental risk and promotion of sustainable development management in the ecology
In short, it is necessary to strengthen substantively national environmental authority, it is not possible a reversal of policy weakness today accused in relation to its structure and in relation to their human, technical and financial resources. It would also require backdrop of a change of vision on the place of the environment in development [7]. The latter is a purpose that would only be possible after an intensive process of public consultation led by the highest government in which from the constitutional and legal mandates on environmental protection and sustainable development plans, programs and strategies agreed required to move towards a society that lives within the limits imposed by the environment. "

Environmental problems are concerned with the exact, natural and social sciences. But at the same time are problems involving political decisions, sometimes controversial and therefore very difficult to solve [6]. Also not identified in local spaces environmental diagnosis, enabling the identification of environmental problems and that aim to set the baseline that allows then recommend action on sustainable development.
Without legislation or environmental control, indiscriminate exploitation and resource degradation natural, besides increasing pollution of soil, water and air, desertification and loss of native forest, reducing ozone, and many others [5]. Policy instruments are the resources that society mobilized to carry out concrete actions to achieve the goals set by the policy [8]. These generally constitutes the operational element of the plans and environmental programs set and adopted in a given country
It is necessary to draw attention in that development generates greater vulnerability on natural resources and more pollution. However, this does not mean that you are against economic development.

While some sectors have abused the concept and this has been mentored by those who are not practicing, but for publicity purposes only image and presented within on current trends, it is important to note that many national and international organizations make efforts to advance in this new style of ecologically sustainable development [12]. The efforts to reach a consensus and conceptualization of ecologically sustainable development involve many sectors in a dynamic way.

Principles of ESD
In order to enact their own environmental standards and always in line with the national jurisdictional regime in force, local government and communities can and should be inspired by the so-called "Environmental Guiding Principles", today also called "Guiding Principles for Ecological Sustainable Development". [4] . While there is not a closed and definitive solution to these principles list, the principle of subsidiary, the principle of sustainability, principle of solidarity and cooperation principle.
The policies states that are powers and duties of the National Government, notwithstanding established by the Organic Charters of Communities: "Preserving the ecological system, natural resources and the environment, ensure the living conditions of the inhabitants. " expressly attributed to environmental preservation as an obligation of the local government so as to guarantee their living conditions is a broad responsibility which requires the local government take an active behavior, so that the current or human activities potentially harmful to the environment that made in the local government they should be jealously controlled by the local government to comply with the constitutional mandate to "guarantee" the living conditions of the inhabitants.
No administrative and planning instruments are identified, linked to permits, licenses and environmental impact studies. Neither economic instruments are identified in the field.
The correlation between the key issues of local government order and regulations can be seen in the no. 1 frame.
It may be noted in this regard that the total of eight local environmental issues, only two are in the local government regulatory framework the minimum elements for management [16]. Pollution of surface water and the use of agrochemicals are two problems that once the regulations have demanded configured instrumentation..
The dynamics shaping the environmental regulatory framework in the remaining three local government is very low and nonexistent in some cases, thus identifying significant areas of vacancy for environmental management.

"We must adopt lifestyles and development patterns that respect the limits of nature and unfold within these limits . [2].. This new approach must meet two basic requirements. One is to achieve a deep and widespread commitment to a new ethics, . ethic of living sustainably and realize their principles in practice the other is to integrate conservation and development: conservation that maintains our actions within the carrying capacity of the Earth, and development that enables all world enjoy long, healthy and fulfilling life
Under "Considerations for progress towards sustainable development ..." those aspects which, although they can be adopted in different regions of the continent, we consider priority to advance the sustainable development of any region are indicated [3]. This information can be useful in defining how the back can focus radio programs, which issues should be prioritized and who will be the recipients of this information.
However, in order to know in what context these changes we should be necessary to characterize the situation, giving brief information about the ecological importance of the region, the development of this and the actors involved. Briefly it can be noted that the scenario fragmented environmental legislative, a characteristic of the provincial regulatory frameworks of the national government, is also evident in the local government [15]. It is identified legislation on the protection of wildlife, water, fisheries and aquaculture, protection of wild flora, soil conservation, agrochemical use, water use and hazardous waste.
A number of authorities responding to different thematic allegiances and different hierarchical levels is recognized. In this sense, the fragmented approach to this environmental issue in different national and regional contexts is played once more in the provinces


Role of National government and Local government in Sustainable Environmental Policy
The context was an important government account associated spare completion of a period of de facto governments and democratic reinstallation, consistent with the strength that the environmental issue had taken from the Stockholm Conference 1972. during the three elapsed, several decades were the changes in hierarchy, naming, thematic breadth and integration of the body, including the simultaneous existence of two national bodies with environmental competencies for a certain period to fire management plans under the rural fire problems associated exclusively nomadic livestock activity type.

Local government in policy implementation
The institutional framework of all local government in the regional micro unit is the characterization of the political and administrative structure and gravitation area and or environmental unit and form configuration of new local government powers that are in the environmental issue one dimension to your exercise.
Hiring local government employees who do not favor the development of human resources: Additionally, the use of local government / provincial / national execution of tasks for the local government plans translates into an increase of staff creates difficulties monitoring and management tasks. [1]
Also not identified in local spaces environmental diagnosis, enabling the identification of environmental problems and that aim to set the baseline that allows then recommend action on sustainable development.
Care of the environment should be a responsibility of all levels of government: the National State should set targets to meet, dictate the basic legislation and contribute to the financing of actions on the most vulnerable areas; the provincial government would have to take care of the environment in areas without local government coverage or addressing those problems that exceed the local power, as well as provide technical assistance and institutional support; regulation of national legislation on geographical scope and the exercise of police power should be exclusive powers of local governments
Specific ESD issues being discussed
-The range of policy instruments provincial order provides a framework for only half of the main environmental problems identified at the local level. Thus, it reflects the fact that a total of eight issues include regulatory framework orbit only four.
- The variety of policy instruments of local order provides a framework only 25% of local environmental issues. The total of eight defined key problems exist only local government policy instruments to two problems [15]: Pollution of surface and groundwater resources and use of agrochemicals.
- A key issue as the pressure on groundwater resources, are configured as a vacant area in regulatory matters local and also provincial possibilities for implementing programs at the national order are reduced in response to the list of programs that manages the Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development of the Nation.
- A key problems such as soil erosion and sand dunes advancing reproduces the above considerations, the absence of provincial and local regulatory frameworks, but has a possibly applicable program from the national orbit
- The set of problems that "deforestation of native forests" and "Poaching of native species" are handled provide a regulatory framework of provincial development order more qualitative and quantitatively compared to other problems.

Conclusion

Today we have a fairly wide range of public and private entities, groups and movements concerned about ecological sustainable development, which have some level of impact on the awareness to the environment. Environmental information plays a key measurement processes role, monitoring, evaluation and planning of ecologically sustainable development locally, as it serves in principle to a preventive political process, which attempts to identify emerging environmental issues at once to evaluate the intensity and direction of potential partner’s synergistic effects.

References

[1]E. Kahraman and A. Baig, Environmentalism. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2010.

[2]M. Freedman and B. Jaggi, Sustainability, environmental performance and disclosures. Bingley: Emerald, 2010.

[3]M. Kagawa-Fox, The ethics of Japan's global environmental policy. London: Routledge, 2012.

[4]S. Cohen, Understanding environmental policy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

[5]C. Eccleston, Global environmental policy. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011.

[6]R. Hester and R. Harrison, Global environmental change. Cambridge, U.K.: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002.

[7]D. Fiorino, The new environmental regulation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006.

[8]V. Jha, Environmental regulation and food safety. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2005.

[9]S. Parto and B. Herbert-Copley, Industrial innovation and environmental regulation. New York: United Nations University Press/International Development Research Centre, 2007.

[10]H. Brown, D. Angel and P. Derr, Effective environmental regulation. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.

[11]J. Green, Reducing air pollution. Milwaukee, Wis.: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2005.

[12]M. Haerens, Air pollution. Detroit: Greenhaven Press/Gale Cengage Learning, 2011.

[13]D. Miller, Pollution. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2007.

[14]N. Vig and M. Faure, Green giants?. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004.

[15]A. Lenschow, Environmental policy integration. London: Earthscan Publications, 2002.

[16]R. Kuehr, Japan's Transnational Environmental Policies. Frankfurt: Lang, Peter, GmbH, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2012.

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