Project Governance refers to the framework of management within which the decisions relating to a project are made. It serves to provide a framework for decision making that is repeatable, logical and robust in a bid to govern the capital investments of an organization.
- Gate keeping refers to the process of filtration of information for dissemination for any modes of communication
- Stage Gate Approval is a project management technique where a project is divided into various stages or phases, which are separated from one another using decision points.
- Front end loading also known as pre-project planning, early project planning, conceptual planning, schematic design and feasibility analysis is the process of development of the concepts of projects as carried out in processing industries (Aschman, 2017, p.117).
Design-Build is one of the systems used in delivering projects in the construction industry and involves the delivery in which one of the entities (the design-build team), works under the same contract as the owner of the project in the provision of construction and design services.
Design-bid-build also referred to as design-tender traditional method is a system of project delivery where the owner or the agency of the project is contracted separately for entities of design and construction of a stipulated project (Aschman, 2017 p. 258). This method of project delivery is the ancient project delivery method and has a distinguishable aspect from build-design project delivery method. Deign-bid-build has three major sequential phases that lead to the delivery of the project:
- Design phase
- Bidding/ tender phase
- Construction phase
EPCM, an abbreviation for Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management is a form of project delivery in which the client picks on a contractor who is to offer the management service of the project in totality on behalf of the client. In this arrangement, the contractor is tasked with the coordination of all procurement, design and construction works and is to ensure that the project goes on to completion as per the stipulated timelines (Aschman, 2017, p. 188). Depending on the arrangement between the client and the contractor, the contractor may or otherwise undertake the site work of the project.
Construction contractors become involved in a project after the design and bidding during the project execution stage. The contractor is the individual that is tasked with the responsibility of the changing the construction drawings from the architect into the actual building (Merrow, 2011 p.211).
The outcomes of mega industrial projects are least influenced by the contracting approach. According to Merrow, of greater importance and value is the quality of the people that are involved in a project and how to effect the project organization is. In his argument, he feels that there is no best contracting approach as every contracting approach can succeed. In this, he attempts to eliminate the traps in which clients use contracts as a scapegoat in which they pass the burden of the responsibility of the outcomes of the project to the contractor (Merrow, 2011 p.266). Contractors do not have the knowledge and skills to manage such possible risks or even the balance sheet in which they can absorb them. Concisely, Merrow advises that quality time should be spent organizing and shaping the project before the actual execution can formally be initiated. I agree with these sentiments in light of having a successful project.
Aschman A, ‘Establishing a Fit For Purpose Project System,' Independent Analysis Newsletter, Vol. 9, December 2017.
Merrow EW, Industrial Megaprojects, Concepts, Strategies and Practices for Success, Willey, 2011