Encyclopedia Of Public Administration And Public Policy Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy.

Answer:

Introduction

This section of the research paper is classified into the three major parts. The first part of the section provides the information about the research topic and outline the main arguments presented by the researchers in the given research article. The second part analyzes the key aims and objectives Critique to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the research article. The final part provides a clear overview about the structure of the research study.

Research Topic and Main Arguments: The research topic of the study is to evaluate the roles, applications and importance of positive accounting theory in the context of research program to create causal explanations of human behavior in the setting of accounting. In the study, the main arguments presented by the authors suggest that, today, it is more significant and essential for all the companies to effectively and appropriately use the applications and concepts of positive accounting theory (PAT) not only to enhance organizational performance & productivity but also gain competitive advantages and compete in the dynamic business environment. It is also analyzed that, PAT is also considered by the companies as an innovative tools to bring innovation at the workplace. On the other hand, it is also accessed by the authors that, PAT has wider scope that provides a clear and strategic direction in understanding the human behavior in setting of accounting rules, principals, standard and policies. Moreover, this theory is also provides ways to companies about how to attain corporate goals by maximizing firm’s productivity and profitability (Mattessich, 2007).

Key Aim/Objective: The main purpose of critique is to develop a clear understanding in the minds of readers about the positive approach to accounting theory. Moreover, the aim of the study is to analyze and evaluate the concepts of positive accounting research as a major part of wider intellectual project of scientific research which aim to recognize the cause-and-effect relationships.

Structure of the study: This research paper or study is structured and classified in different key parts including, introduction, overview/summary of article, addressing of research questions, applications/theoretical framework of the study, significance & limitation and conclusion of the study.

On the basis of facts and information presented by the author in the research article, it can be summarized that, positive accounting has wider scope used in research programs in order to understand the human behavior in the setting of accounting. On the other hand, the study summarize that, today most of companies are using the applications and principals of positive accounting theory in their organizations to predict actual accounting practices. This helps them in achieving economic and financial objectives effectively (Mourik & Walton, 2013). Moreover, it can also be summarized that, through the effective utilization of positive accounting, business firms are able to evaluate and understand the events within their bookkeeping transactions. Additionally, the study is also summarizes the significance of positive accounting in big sense of research programs. Moreover, it is also summarized that, by using positive theory, human behavior could be effectively understand the human behavior in setting of bookkeeping. Along with this, it is also found that, positive accounting research is a branch of positive accounting that used in intellectual project of scientific research by the companies in order to develop understanding about the cause & effect relations (Dunmore, 2009).

At the same time, it can also be recapitulated that, in using of positive accounting research, a wide range of deficiencies could be faced by the company. But, it is also offer a lot of benefits to the user company. For case, when a company adopt wider intellectual project, it may face several problems with regards to project’s ontological and epistemological assumptions. Along with this, in the study, the author had summarized the fact that, the actual purpose of the positive accounting can be different and unexpected, if it is not done well and established. It indicates the link and relationship among the positive accounting and positive accounting research (West, 2003). Hence, it is important to use positive accounting appropriately, and effectively in order to conduct the positive accounting research to get desired outcomes. Moreover, it can also be sum up that the positive accounting research must be adopted by the business firms as a paradigm in order to solve accounting, auditing, business and bookkeeping related issues at the pre-determined time period. For example, positive accounting research as paradigm would allow the accountants and financial managers of the company to overcome various issues (Antle, Liang, & Gjesdal, 2007).

There are several theoretical and practical/mathematical methods are also used by the researcher in the study in order to understand the value of positive accounting theory and research in the business. For instance, it is found that, both positive accounting research and theory are important tool for the today’s companies. It is because these allow the companies and firms to access real and true suppositions about the real world events. Furthermore, it is also analyzed and summarized by the researcher in the study article that, accounting has different phenomenon that are resourced by the process of balanced self-interest between the people those coordinate through the express/ implied agreement in the various companies. The study is also indicates that, the accounting research is characterized with the different regions of positive research that could not be illustrate appreciably on the theoretical model (Rabin, 2003).

Moreover, it is also accessed and found that, positive research is much more valuable, useful, and significant by comparing it to positive theory of accounting. It is because, positive accounting research allows a company to conduct different research programs to improve the profitability, productivity, and work performance in an effective and proper manner. Furthermore, a wide range of differences and similarities can be found among the positive research and positive accounting (Deegan, 2014). At the same time, it can also be concluded that, positive accounting research considers various assumption in understanding of human behavior in accounting setting. Furthermore, it can be sum up that, the terminologies of positive accounting research such as: epistemology and ontology had explained by the author in order to reach the valid conclusion or outcomes. Lastly, it can be concluded that, in order to effectively and properly conduct the study, various theoretical models are used. On the other hand, various terminologies are discussed with regards to the positive accounting research and theory such as: requirement of good measurement & data archives etc (Humphrey & Lee, 2007).

Research Question

Based on the study and facts of the research article, the following are the research questions that had addressed in order to understand key issues, theory, strengths and weaknesses of the given research article.

  • How PAT is called an area of accounting research? Also describe the advantages and deficiencies of positive accounting research?
  • What are the key roles of PAT with regards to accounting research program?
  • How to access and analyze real world event by adopting the applications and principles of positive accounting theory and research? (Wolk, Dodd, & Rozycki, 2016).
  • What is the process of conducting accounting research programs in the businesses?
  • How to understand the connection among the positive accounting research & wider intellectual project of scientific research?
  • What is the roles and functions of positive accounting research as a paradigm
  • How to access the similarities and differences between positive accounting research & accounting research? Also describe their relative areas and scope in the business?

Theoretical Framework

It is analyzed that, this research study is characterized with the appropriate and effective theoretical framework associated with the accounting, auditing, and finance that could be used in the real business to improve overall productivity and attain long term financial objectives. On the other hand, the study is also provides theoretical information about the positive accounting theory, and research that can be easily understood by the reader to conduct further study. Moreover, the research uses various theoretical application and concepts with regards to accounting, bookkeeping, auditing, accounting theories etc (Chambers, & Dean, G. 2013).

Moreover, the study is also offer wider scope for the further research and suggests how the positive accounting theory is related with the positive research in accounting and how to access human behavior in setting of accounting. The study is not only useful and important for the readers, companies and students in understanding the theoretical concepts of accounting but also understanding the wider area of positive accounting research in business (Riahi-Belkaoui, 2004). Along with this, the theoretical concepts with regards to epistemology, ontology, positive accounting research, positive accounting theory, intellectual project of scientific research, accounting research programs, deficiencies & benefits of positive accounting theory and research has been explained and defined by the research in order to fulfill the aims, objectives and purpose of the study (Hoque, 2006).

Significance and Limitations

In the study, both mathematical and theoretical methods are used by the researcher in order to develop a clear understanding about the positive accounting theory and research. The researcher had defined and explained each and every principal, concepts of positive accounting research and theory. In the same way, this study is provides depth information about the research topic. Along with this, the study is conducted effectively by the researcher by using various method of accounting (Burns & Needles, 2014).

The main limitation of the study is that, the researcher had used more complicated mathematical models to represent the study and attain the research goals. Hence, the methods used by the researcher are more complex and confusing to understand. Moreover, the researcher had not properly focused on attaining the key goals of the study; he/she had focused only on describing the research topic. Additionally, the study clearly indicates lack use of primary data collection method. For instance, in the study primary method is ignored by using secondary source of information. The study is also reflects that there is no research questions, objectives, and aims identified. Hence, there is no link among the research objectives and research topic (Abdel-Kader, 2001).

Conclusion

On the basis of above discussion, it can be concluded that, positive accounting research is a major area of positive accounting theory that has wider scope and used in intellectual project by the business firms in order to attain their financial and economic objectives. Positive accounting research program provides specific and innovative business opportunities to the companies to access their real and actual accounting transactions effectively. Finally, it can be concluded that, firms should focus on positive accounting research, programs and theories in order to attain their key objectives effectively.

References

Abdel-Kader, M.G. (2001). Review of Management Accounting Research. USA: Springer.

Antle, R., Liang, P.J, & Gjesdal, F. (2007). Essays in Accounting Theory in Honour of Joel S. Demski. USA: Springer Science & Business Media.

Burns, J. O., & Needles, B.E. (2014). Accounting Education for the 21st Century: The Global Challenges. USA: Elsevier.

Chambers, R. J., & Dean, G. W. (2013). Chambers on Accounting: Logic, Law and Ethics. UK: Routledge.

Deegan, C. (2014). Financial Accounting Theory. USA: McGraw-Hill Education Australia.

Dunmore, P.V. (2009). Retrieved From:

Hoque, Z. (2006). Methodological Issues in Accounting Research: Theories, Methods and Issues. USA: Spiramus Press Ltd, 2006

Humphrey, C., & Lee, B. (2007). The Real Life Guide to Accounting Research: A Behind the Scenes View of Using Qualitative Research Methods. USA: Elsevier.

Mattessich, R. (2007). Two Hundred Years of Accounting Research. UK: Routledge.

Mourik, C. & Walton, P. (2013). The Routledge Companion to Accounting, Reporting and Regulation. UK: Routledge.

Rabin, J. (2003). Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy: A-J. USA: CRC Press.

Riahi-Belkaoui, A. (2004). Accounting Theory. USA: Cengage Learning EMEA, 2004

West, B.P. (2003). Professionalism and Accounting Rules. UK: Routledge.

Wolk, H.I., Dodd, J.L., & Rozycki, J.I. (2016). Accounting Theory: Conceptual Issues in a Political and Economic Environment. USA: SAGE Publications.

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