Enabling Technologies Humanitarian Logistic Essay

Question:

Discuss About The Enabling Technologies Humanitarian Logistic?

Answer:

Introduction

The aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of technologies in reducing the amount of construction wastes. Despite huge amount of efforts on the part of the government to reduce the waste generated from construction sites, no significant changes have been observed either due to lack of sufficient resources or technologies. Therefore, the research aims at finding out the effective technologies which can contribute positively towards reduction in construction waste generation.

Rationale

Environmental reports generated have shown that wastes generated out of construction sites contributes significantly towards the development of global warming or greenhouse effect. The Indian construction industry has signed a waste wise construction agreement with the federal government in order to commit to the reduction of demolition and construction waste generation (Dahlbo et al. 2015). However, the figures are alarming and calls for immediate measures to be undertaken. As per the reports, 17.2 million tonnes of construction wastes are generated annually. Out of which 9.5 million was disposed to landfill a significant part of which returned back to the food chain through water bodies (Butera et al. 2015). As commented by Brunner and Rechberger (2015), excess deposition of the construction waste in the water bodies could often lead to biomagnifications which possess threat to the entire ecosystem. As mentioned by Butera et al. (2015), disposal of waste at landfill is the least preferable option.

However, recent technological advancements have seen to contribute significantly towards the reduction of waste material regeneration at the construction site. It acts by reducing the amount of waste generated at source. Instances of overdesigning leads to excessive use of raw materials, which further enhances waste generation. Therefore, the raw materials need to be used in coordinated sizes for prevention of excess waste generation. As mentioned by ?zdamar and Ertem (2015), the construction and demolition waste could be reduced to less harmful end products. At the same time they could be recycled into more usable forms. Therefore, the implementation of effective technology lies at the core of the waste management process.

The concept of re-use enables using the same material in different processes without a need to re-process them. The aspect of recycling differs slightly with re-using in that the materials are re-processed rather than using them in original form (Hardin and McCool 2015). With the advent of technology the recycling options for waste product are increasing. Additionally, improved segregation of wastes can help lower the rates of contamination (Edjabou et al. 2015). However, a huge number of hindrances are offered to the successful implementation of waste management technologies at the construction site. This could be attributed to the lack of knowledge in the workers regarding the different methods of waste management and redresser. Additionally, the lack of finances can also serve as a barrier to the implementation of sophisticated technologies within the factor site.

The reductions in the amount of hazardous waste have been seen to enhance the safety climate of an organization (Lombardi et al. 2015). As commented by Kucukvar et al. (2014), greater employee engagement is seen in construction sites which have passed the safety standards test.

Objectives of the research

The research study will be conducted by designing a number of research objectives. These objectives help in breaking down the research into a number of components. The analysis across individual components helps in arriving at a comprehensive result. The research primarily aims at exploring the use of technologies in waste management in construction sites.

The objectives of the research have been enlisted as below:

  • To implement waste reduction technologies at construction and demolition sites to reduce the amount of waste generated
  • To educate the construction site workers regarding handling and management of innovative waste reduction methods
  • To access the improvement in health and safety standards of the factory workers due to implementation of waste reduction process

Plan of the research

The research methodology will follow the literature review which will evaluate the concept of waste management at construction sites through use of effective technologies. The literature review will be based upon a number of literature sources. Some of the selected sources will be critically evaluated by the researcher in order to arrive at a suitable conclusion. The study will be further conducted by the researcher in order to remove the gap in the cited literature sources. The researcher will further employ a number of data collection methods for the representation of the results in statistically significant form. The outcomes of the data collection process will be further linked with the objectives of the research for generating a future action plan.

Comparison of inquiry systems

The systems of inquiry which will be used by the researcher could be divided into different types of research approaches such as – inductive, abductive and deductive approach. In inductive reasoning the theories will be developed through observation of similar patterns or resemblances of the data sets. In inductive approach the theory will be deduced from a range of observations proposed at the end of the research (Hartas 2015). It involves working from observations towards an inference. However as argued by Spector (2015), there are a number of limitations of the inductive reasoning, as it is based upon a set of observations which are not complete. Additionally, the perception regarding the observed data varies from individuals to individuals (Akhtar-Danesh and Mirza 2017). Therefore, discrepancies may result in the reporting of the final result.

The deductive theory is based upon inferring from a number of propositions. It states that if an inference A and B is true then inference C is also taken to be true. However, the deductive approach is a powerful assessment tool as the hypothesis here will be developed based upon a number of existing theories. Here, the research approach shifts from a particular aspect to a more general aspect. As commented by Pearl (2014), the deductive approach is supported by abundant resources. The adoption of the deductive approach helps in measuring the results qualitatively along with establishment of relationship between the concept and the variables. This particular mode of approach is not just based upon mere observations and data. Therefore, the chances of erroneous presentation of results are less over here.

The abductive reasoning helps in overcoming the gaps associated with both inductive and deductive approaches. The inductive approach is based upon mere observations which may vary with individual perceptions. The difference of opinions further develops into research biases (Meyers et al. 2016). The deductive approach on the other hand lacks clarity regrading the procedure for selection of particular theories over other. The abductive reasoning will be done on the other hand following a pragmatist perception. Here, the researcher will combine a cognitive and numerical approach for arriving at an acceptable solution. However, incomplete data sets can challenge the authenticity of the results.

In the current study, the researcher will use a deductive approach over the inductive or abductive approaches. The deductive approach will help in establishing a relationship between different variables of the assessment and the relevant theories. The adoption of the deductive approach helps in presentation of the results on a quantitative basis (Padgett 2016). Some of these will be used by the researcher for arriving at statistically significant results. Here, a positivist research philosophy will be used by the researcher for gaining factual knowledge based upon data and observations.

The research design could be further divided into-descriptive, exploratory and explanatory. Undertaking the explanatory research helps in understanding the cause and effect relationship. The descriptive research design sheds light upon the current problem situation through data collection (Norris et al. 2015). The exploratory research merely navigates around the research question without offering a suitable outcome to the problem situation (Bryman 2015). In the current study, the researcher will use the descriptive research design where numerical data will be used by the researcher for arriving at significant results. The theories selected through the deductive approach further helps in understanding the loopholes of the study design (Pearl 2014).

Method of the research

In the current study, a primary research design will be followed by the researcher where mixed data collection methods will be used. The primary research design can be divided into both qualitative and quantitative methods. The tool which will be used over here for collection of quantitative data is a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire will be used by the researcher for the assessment of a number of workplace standards such as safety and employee satisfaction ratios.

Similarly, an interview will be conducted by the researcher which will help the researcher in focus upon various benefits and hindrances faced due to the implementation of waste management technologies in the construction and demotion sites. In this respect, the participants will be selected from various designations of the company for which prior consent will have to be taken. The participants selected may comprise of the manager, line manager and the site workers. The mixed method used will help the researcher in understanding the difference between the collective responses of the survey and the interview questions. The common opinions which emerge as an outcome of the data collection process will be used by the researcher for the development of a future action plan.

Collection and analysis of the data

In this respect, a survey questionnaire will be framed by the researcher pertaining to installation of waste management technologies and benefits of the same within a construction site. In this respect, semi-structured close ended questionnaire will be used by the researcher for the collection of responses. The responses will be represented in the form of graphs and charts.

In the qualitative research design a number of interview questions will be prepared by the researcher. In this respect, an open-ended questionnaire will be used by the researcher for the collection of interview responses. The responses to the interview questions could be analysed for similar dissimilar results. The similar responses will be grouped together by the researcher for reflection and analysis.

Ethical considerations

The ethical considerations forms a critical part of primary research design. In this respect, the researcher will need to take prior approval of the participants. However, as argued by Morse (2016), being at an arm’s length from the organization can be a disadvantage for the researcher. Therefore, an effective collaboration will be established by the researcher with the participating organizations. In this respect, the consent forms for the interview process will be distributed by the researcher before conducting the interview or the survey process. Here, the consent forms via by e-mail or personal invitation through phone messages will be sent to the participants.

The researcher will be careful not to force the participants to participate in the data collection process. Additionally, the survey and interview process will be organised on a free entry or exit basis. Therefore, the participants can feel free to leave the interview process at any point of time. The researcher will also need to be careful to respect the cultural faith and beliefs of the participants while conducting the interview process. That is the researcher will ensure that the participants will not be asked questions which can make them feel upset. Additionally, confidentiality is one of the important objectives of the interview process and will be maintained by the researcher.

The aim of the research is to understand the benefits of the use of waste management technologies in construction and demolition sites. The research further focuses upon the discovery of cost –effective waste management technologies and their implementation at the construction sites. However, the lack of sufficient knowledge regarding innovative technologies has made waste management an issue for the Indian construction industry. Therefore, a research methodology had been designed which will help in understanding the different steps and measures which needs to be taken for conducting the study.

The researcher will take a deductive approach over here which will help him streamline towards a general approach for solving the problem situation. Additionally, the mixed methods used by the researcher will help in comparative analysis.

In the current study mixed methods of data collection have been used where both survey and interview questionnaires will be used by the researcher for the collection of data. The time limit for conducting the research study will be fixed at 11 weeks. However, the results obtained as a result of the survey and interview process are further subject to biases. This is because the responses of the interview may be guided by basic perceptions and values rather than focussing upon the problem situation. However, the success of the implementation of the research project lies by and large at the hands of the participatory organizations. That is the lack of effective cooperation can affect the end results of the research process.

The different steps of the thesis planning will be conducted across the 11 weeks which will be further explained with the help of a research timeline. The first two weeks will be used by the researcher for analysis of the literature. The concepts or the theories will be further used for the development of a thesis, research aim and objectives. This process will be executed over the 3rd and 4th weeks. The proposal will be then submitted to the supervisor for further approval. The gap in the literature is found out by the end which is used for developing the scope of the research. By the end of the 5th week the consent forms for undertaking the survey and the interview are dispatched to the concerned organization. The entire survey takes 14 days time to be conducted. Following the survey the interview will be undertaken for which prior approval will be taken by the researcher. By the end of the 9th week the draft will be submitted to the accessor for feedback. The accessor takes sufficient amount of time to go through the rough draft. The final compilation will be submitted by the researcher at the end of the 11th week.

Research plan for 11 week thesis

Timeline/research plan

Activities

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Week 8

Week 9

Week 10

Week 11

Literature analysis

·

·

·

Development of research aim, objectives and rationale

·

·

Finalising of the proposal with the supervisor

·

Analysis of the literature gap

·

·

Consent taking from the participants of the survey and interview process

·

·

Collection of quantitative data through close –ended semi-structured questionnaire (survey)

·

·

Conducting of interview through open ended questionnaire

·

·

Receiving feedback from the accessor on submission of rough draft

·

·

Submission of the final draft after full approval

·

References

Akhtar-Danesh, N. and Mirza, N., 2017. Relation between manual rotation and abductive reasoning in Q-methodology. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5(3), pp.198-204.

Brunner, P.H. and Rechberger, H., 2015. Waste to energy–key element for sustainable waste management. Waste Management, 37, pp.3-12.

Bryman, A., 2015. Social research methods. England: Oxford university press, pp. 125-214.

Butera, S., Christensen, T.H. and Astrup, T.F., 2015. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management. Waste management, 44, pp.196-205.

Chen, D., Yin, L., Wang, H. and He, P., 2015. Reprint of: pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review. Waste management, 37, pp.116-136.

Dahlbo, H., Bach?r, J., L?htinen, K., Jouttij?rvi, T., Suoheimo, P., Mattila, T., Sironen, S., Myllymaa, T. and Saram?ki, K., 2015. Construction and demolition waste management–a holistic evaluation of environmental performance. Journal of cleaner production, 107, pp.333-341.

Edjabou, M.E., Jensen, M.B., G?tze, R., Pivnenko, K., Petersen, C., Scheutz, C. and Astrup, T.F., 2015. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation. Waste Management, 36, pp.12-23.

Hannan, M.A., Al Mamun, M.A., Hussain, A., Basri, H. and Begum, R.A., 2015. A review on technologies and their usage in solid waste monitoring and management systems: Issues and challenges. Waste Management, 43, pp.509-523.

Hardin, B. and McCool, D., 2015. BIM and construction management: proven tools, methods, and workflows. John Wiley & Sons.

Hartas, D. ed., 2015. Educational research and inquiry: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp. 126-226.

Kucukvar, M., Egilmez, G. and Tatari, O., 2014. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis. Waste Management & Research, 32(6), pp.500-508.

Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), pp.473-475.

Lombardi, L., Carnevale, E. and Corti, A., 2015. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste. Waste management, 37, pp.26-44.

Mayoh, J. and Onwuegbuzie, A.J., 2015. Toward a conceptualization of mixed methods phenomenological research. Journal of mixed methods research, 9(1), pp.91-107.

McCusker, K. and Gunaydin, S., 2015. Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), pp.537-542.

Mertens, D.M., 2014. Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. London: Sage publications, pp. 62-105.

Meyers, L.S., Gamst, G. and Guarino, A.J., 2016. Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. London: Sage publications, pp. 153-222.

Morse, J.M., 2016. Mixed method design: Principles and procedures (Vol. 4). Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 215-316.

Norris, J.M., Plonsky, L., Ross, S.J. and Schoonen, R., 2015. Guidelines for reporting quantitative methods and results in primary research. Language Learning, 65(2), pp.470-476.

?zdamar, L. and Ertem, M.A., 2015. Models, solutions and enabling technologies in humanitarian logistics. European Journal of Operational Research, 244(1), pp.55-65.

Padgett, D.K., 2016. Qualitative methods in social work research (Vol. 36). London: Sage Publications, pp. 135-169.

Pearl, J., 2014. The deductive approach to causal inference. Journal of Causal Inference, 2(2), pp.115-129.

Spector, P.E., 2015. Induction, deduction abduction: Three legitimate approaches to organizational research. Lecture for the Consortium for the Advancement of Research Methods and Analysis (CARMA).

Wu, Z., Ann, T.W., Shen, L. and Liu, G., 2014. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: an analytical review. Waste Management, 34(9), pp.1683-1692.

Zaman, A.U., 2014. Measuring waste management performance using the ‘Zero Waste Index’: the case of Adelaide, Australia. Journal of cleaner production, 66, pp.407-419.

Plan of the research

How to cite this essay: