Employment Patterns Of Women In New Zealand Essay


Discuss about the Different Employment patterns of Women and their Economic outcomes in New Zealand.



There has been significant increase in the labour force of women in New Zealand and especially the paid employment patterns of women. However, the pattern of work histories of women shows that there has been sequence of entries as well as exits. There has been an increase in the strengths of women in terms of maximizing their economic and social success(Ministry for Women, 2017). The government of New Zealand is committed to give equal opportunities to the women so that they can use their skills as well as talents in the economy (Darling-Hammond, 2015). It aims to give women a suitable framework that would minimize their exposure to different forms of gender discrimination.

This research paperwould discuss the different employment outcomes of women in New Zealand. The second part would discuss about the representations of the women in group. This would be done with the help offour examples of women at work. The critical analysis of these examples would be done. The part 3 would identify the review of the selected articles in the chosen diversity group and ponder about their outcomes.


The women residing in New Zealand has seen a dominant rise in the society, similar to that displayed in other countries (Ministry for Women, 2017). Over the period of years, women in New Zealand have learnt to be ingenious, adaptable and independent (Ministry for Women, 2017). There has been slow disappearance of stereotypes of women and greater women are entering the workforce. The Ministry of Women Affairs aims to give equal opportunity to women in all matters (McGregor et al., 2017). It aims to give equal rights to women in various forms of trades and occupation.

There have been different needs of the different categories of women such as Asian women, Pacific women, migrant women, women with disabilities and others. The current labor force participation rate revolves around 64.72 percent, as recorded in 2016 (Statistics.govt.nz, 2017). It has been observed that the unemployment rate for Pacific and Maori women is the highest. The gender gap in terms of compensation is the one of the lowest in the world as far as full time workers are concerned. The New Zealand women engage in more amount of unpaid work than their male counterparts (Statistics.govt.nz, 2017). Statistics reveal that the unemployment rate of the women is greater in men as compared to men. This trend is quite similar in disabled population too.

The country is committed to bringing in more gender equality as well as committed in enhancing the outcomes for women in respective areas (Statistics.govt.nz, 2017). The country believes in engaging the different women leaders so that they have the highest level of participation in management and governance (Workresearch.aut.ac.nz, 2017). The skills of the women leaders are being utilized to bring out greater economic outcomes for the country and ensuring that women are free from violence.

The economic outcomes have been affected by the instances of motherhood. The early motherhood (at the age of 30 years) is said to have economic disadvantage for this group. The pregnant women in their early motherhood period seem to work for fewer hours, have low financial independence and they get more prone to economic hardships (Sonfield et al., 2013).

The employment rates of the educated older women are higher, though there are several older women who have little or no formal education (Superseniors.msd.govt.nz, 2017). Research shows that there is a significant increase in the mid-life women employees who are proceeding towards the stages of retirement(Statistics.govt.nz, 2017).However, in the longer period, the group would start ageing and would be a part of the group which has low employment rate.

There has been significant growth in the number of women involving in private as well as government sectors. This has been impacted by the political, economic and social systems. The increase in the participation has been attributed to the higher wages, which is also affected by the technological advancements (Leigh & Blakely, 2016). The higher wages have also impacted the value of women’s and they perceive that it is futile to waste it at home. It is also being influenced by decreasing birth rates as well as small families(Superseniors.msd.govt.nz, 2017).

The number of women who have undergone tertiary education has a positive co-relation with their act of working full-time or part-time. However, there has been an effect known as discouraged working effect, which reduces the female labor supply(Superseniors.msd.govt.nz, 2017). The increased participatory rates have also been due to the rapid urbanization that has resulted in the increased work opportunities (Bonoli, 2017). There are part-time jobs which often act as the entry point of various women who want to return back to the workforce.

Wajcman (2013) argues that the women voluntarily prefer part time education and not only for the childrearing purpose. The part-time employment opportunities are being chosen by women who want to make non-market activities as their priority. There are pressures of the society in terms of child-rearing responsibilities(Bonoli, 2017). In spite of the economic reforms, the women with infants find it difficult to step out of the home and work.

The present socio-economic factors have impacted the women group in making employment level decisions. Society expects that the new mothers sit at home and take care of the children, instead involving them in full-time employment options (Bonoli, 2017). This makes the women less likely to go against their families and their careers take a backseat. It is true that women with child-bearing responsibilities or family duties may opt for part-time job options (Swann, 2014). However, there has been a rising cases of injustice towards such work patterns as far as promotion and training attributes are concerned.

Name of Source



Does it work well in NZ?


given by source



(Joan Withers: Changing the world for working women)

Status of the women in present corporate scenario and the ways of achieving top ranks in the corporate organizations

Corporate entities need to retain their women workforce and give them enough opportunities so that they can excel in their professional lives

Yes, it do works well in NZ

Women can have a balanced lifestyle with life/career so that they are successful

This source pondered about the plights of working women from practical point of view.

The article doesn’t really identify the ways that can be used by women to balance their life and work.

(The gender gap: How NZ is faring)

Varying level of gaps from of economic opportunities between men and women of New Zealand

Portrays the unequal income of the women as compared to men having same qualification

It is relevant in NZ scenario

Women needs to demand equal work rights and know how to handle disparity

Identifies the different attributes of inequality towards women

Doesn’t clearly state the future courses of action

Burke &Mattis, 2013

(Women on Corporate Boards of Directors: International challenges and )

Different issues faced by women in top management

Various barriers include lack of data, lack of information


Women directors have to undertake several problems

Clear representation of the issues in senior management

Restricted to a particular hierarchical level only

Handy & Rowlands, 2014

Labour market differences of women among the Wellington film industry

Problems of women associated with the film industry and intervention of social roles played by them

Yes, it is related to NZ film industry

Women have responsibilities at home and hence they have unequal labor opportunities as compared to their male counterparts

Identifies the actual problems of women in advancing their careers in film industry

Doesn’t clearly mentions the probable solutions

Zealand, 2015

Various methods of occupational gender segmentation

Different kinds of trends, education and the patterns of occupational segregation are correctly displayed


Cluster patterns of women in different occupations in NZ

A wide picture of occupations and women are being depicted

The women’s positions beyond putting them in different occupations are not defined well


(Why be bold for change?)

Current rate of change is inadequate for bringing in gender parity in New Zealand

Various barriers in gender gap and gender pay gap are discussed

Yes, it should be implemented

Important to take bold steps to bring in change regarding gender parity

Practical issue of gender differences are discussed

Article did not critically appraise the issue

There are different kinds of women portrayed in the articles and in the prevailing society. The women are represented to be frail and they are not eager to change. They are often subjected to violence and injustice, which they tolerate. The society always restricts women from entering into certain professions such as military, defenses and others. Women also feel ashamed to do so since they are not able to go against the society.

The society expects women to be well dressed everywhere they are going. They are expected to be well maintained and well-groomed at all times. A typical woman would wear a dress in which she is comfortable and she would be able to carry herself well. She should have neat and tied hair which would make her to look pretty. It is important to look decent always and women are not considered good if they are not well groomed. However, women should not be treated as an object and they should be treated as human beings.

The demographic projections reveal that the elderly women population would be an important part of the labor force. This can be attributed to the long-life expectancy of women as compared to men. The women who become pregnant before the age of 20 years may often lead to economic disadvantage, which may continue till a decade. This often leads to indirect influences to the employment patterns of women.

The article on “Preparing, working, recovering: Gendered experiences of night work among women and their families” discusses about the negative experiences of women towards the night duty work (Lowson& Arber, 2014). The phases of recovery as well as preparation are characterized by additional anxiety. There are also alterations in the sleep patterns of women in night duty. This concept is directly related to the economic outcomes of women discussed in Part 1. However, this article is successful in representing the fact the women are successful in planning their domestic responsibility while working in night shifts(Lowson& Arber, 2014).

The article on “Working Women Worldwide: Age effects in female labor force participation in 117 countries” focuses on the labor force participation rate in different countries apart from New Zealand (Besamusca et al., 2015). This article identifies the fact that the sector sizes as well as per capita GDP is responsible for the exact timing of labor market entry as well as exit. This idea is directly related to the concepts discussed in Part 2 regarding the labor force participation(Besamusca et al., 2015).

The journal on the “Organizational work family culture and working mother’s affective commitment” discusses about the attitudes of the full-time working mothers regarding the work-family culture (Chang, Chin & Ye, 2014). The working mothers are more committed to the organization, as compared to their peers, which opposes the common myth of the society. The expectations of the working mothers are also lower than others, which indicate organizational prosperity. This supports the idea of full time work opportunities of women discussed in part 1 and the effect of child- rearing responsibilities on women’s profession (Chang, Chin & Ye, 2014).

The journal articles on the “Gendered inequality regimes and female labor market disadvantage within New Zealand film industry” focuses on the fact that the women have disadvantages related to gender inequality in the New Zealand film industry (Handy & Rowlands, 2014). Women who have young children are being conceived as the less preferable employees for recruitment. The women have limiting role to play in the film industry as compare to the male counterparts. This article shows the different stereotypes towards women in film industry (similar in corporate world). The structural features of our societies and the institutions force women to abort their professional decisions and agree with the flow.

These articles witness the fact that women should not be considered as beautiful as well as well-dressed in order to be successful at work. It is their talent and expertise that should be counted for gaining recognition at work. The women should be encouraged to showcase their talent and expertise at work. They should not be looked as a source of entertainment and beauty, instead their hard work needs to be recognized. The article on the film industry’s gender inequality shows that the women are not treated equal to men. Their role is limited to certain things only and they are not allowed to go beyond the stereotypes. There are several stereotypes against working moms which prevents them from participating fully in the organizational as well as societal functions. The article on the age of the working women reveals that the women have been successful in managing all levels of management, including the senior management level. This has been focused by the article on the women on the different corporate board of directors. The articles also support the fact that the women have faced different levels of differences in terms of economic opportunities also. This is also highlighted in the society where there are several indifferences owing to the different treatments that are being provided to the employees.

The demographic projections reveal that the elderly women population would be an important part of the labor force. This can be attributed to the long-life expectancy of women as compared to men. The women who become pregnant before the age of 20 years may often lead to economic disadvantage, which may continue till a decade. This often leads to indirect influences to the employment patterns of women.


The working life of women in New Zealand is coupled with anxiety, uncertainty, superstitions and obstacles, which they need to fight with every day. The working women need to break traditional societal barriers in order to be successful in their professional life. They need to overcome several stereotypes in order to occupy the profession position that she desires. They also need to balance their home and profession so that neither of them suffers. The research paper discusses about the employment patterns as well as the economic outcomes of women in New Zealand. The full-time employment is related to several factors such as tertiary education, employability of older women, socio-economic conditions, part-time employment scope and others. There are six examples provided that ponders about the different dimensions of the relationship between women and their employment probabilities. The last part of the research paper critically analyzes the different sources that strengthen the selected diversity group. This research paper would broaden the understanding of the position of women in occupations in New Zealand and how they can be improved.


Besamusca, J., Tijdens, K., Keune, M., & Steinmetz, S. (2015). Working women worldwide. Age effects in female labor force participation in 117 countries. World Development, 74, 123-141.

Bonoli, G. (2017). Labour market and social protection reforms in international perspective: parallel or converging tracks?. Taylor & Francis.

Burke, R. J., &Mattis, M. C. (Eds.). (2013). Women on corporate boards of directors: International challenges and opportunities (Vol. 14). Springer Science & Business Media.

Chang, E., Chin, H., & Ye, J. (2014). Organizational work?family culture and working mothers’ affective commitment: How career expectations matter. Human Resource Management, 53(5), 683-700.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2015). The flat world and education: How America's commitment to equity will determine our future. Teachers College Press.

Handy, J., & Rowlands, L. (2014). Gendered inequality regimes and female labour market disadvantage within the New Zealand film industry. Women's Studies Journal, 28(2), 24.

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Leigh, N. G., & Blakely, E. J. (2016). Planning local economic development: Theory and practice. Sage Publications.

Lowson, E., & Arber, S. (2014). Preparing, working, recovering: Gendered experiences of night work among women and their families. Gender, Work & Organization, 21(3), 231-243.

McGregor, J., Davies, S. G., Giddings, L. S., & Pringle, J. (2017). Pursuing equal pay: The perspectives of female engineers and potential policy interventions. Journal of Industrial Relations, 59(1), 3-21.

Ministry for Women |. (2017). Women.govt.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from

Sonfield, A., Hasstedt, K., Kavanaugh, M. L., & Anderson, R. (2013). The social and economic benefits of women’s ability to determine whether and when to have children.

Statistics.govt.nz. (2017). Statistics.govt.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from

Superseniors.msd.govt.nz (2017). Superseniors.msd.govt.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from

Swann, N. (2014). A cross-generational narrative examination of women's career journeys. Pepperdine University.

The gender gap: How NZ is faring. (2017). NZ Herald. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from

Wajcman, J. (2013). Managing like a man: Women and men in corporate management. John Wiley & Sons.

Why Be Bold For Change?. (2017). Globalwomen.org.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from

Work Research Institute - AUT. (2017). Workresearch.aut.ac.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from

Zealand, S. N. (2015). Women at work: 1991–2013. Ministry for Women: Wellington, New Zealand.

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