Discuss About The Employees Motivation And Performance Work?
Work life balance of employees especially in the private sectors has been a reason for concern for quite some time now. With the increase in the work pressure and job responsibilities in the private sectors, millions of employees around the world find it hard to maintain a balance between work and life. Furthermore, the excessive pressure and responsibilities result in extreme stress on the employee that in turn negatively affects the motivation and performance in office (Albertsen et al. 2014). Many employees of private sectors around the world have complained that in spite of having fixed shift hours, they were forced to work beyond their regular shift timings to complete their daily duties. Lack of job security further aggravates this issue, meaning the employees are always worried about their job status even if they perform well regularly.
This research is mainly based on the effect of stress and work pressure on the performance and motivation of the employees of Standard Chartered Bank, Sri Lanka. Extreme stress and additional work pressure are two major problems that are being faced by a huge number of private sector employees worldwide. Although this problem is known to almost every one worldwide, there have not been any significant research activities on this particular topic that have provided reliable and sustainable solutions for this particular problem. Hence, this research topic has been chosen as it will allow a lot of scope to explore the areas that have not been researched earlier.
Background of the Company
Standard Chartered Bank first started operations in Sri Lanka in 1858 and is now one of the largest and oldest banks in the country. The bank started its call centre services in Sri Lanka in 1998 that was mainly meant for customer services and addressing queries regarding banking services. Currently, there are around 30 bank staff members who are employed in the call centre department to handle customer calls and address their queries regarding banking.
Current Situation of the Company
Recently, there have been several employee outrages in the Standard Chartered Bank, Sri Lanka owing to the high stress at work and lack of sufficient recess or holidays. Some of the employees have stated that on certain week days, they needed to work for continuous 17-18 hours without sufficient rest. As a result, they have not been able maintain balance their work with life and in addition, they lacked confidence and motivation at work that are affecting their work performances.
Investigating the impact of stress and work pressure on employee motivation and performance as well as work life balance of the employees of SCB Sri Lanka (Research question: What impact does the stress and work pressure have on the motivation and performance of the employees of SCB?)
- To conduct a literature review in order to understand the impacts of the working policies of the companies on the employees
- To analyze the current situation at the call centre of Standard Chartered Bank (SCB), Sri Lanka
- To critically discuss the impacts of the bank’s policies on the employees
- To conduct questionnaire type surveys on the existing call centre employees of the SCB in Sri Lanka
- To summarize all the collected data for reaching a certain conclusion and prepare suitable recommendations to address the issues mentioned above
According to the works of Bloom et al. (2014), employee satisfaction is an important attribute that is required to improve motivation and performance of the employee in the office. However, due to excessive work pressure and elongated shift hours, the employee satisfaction drops significantly and as a result, the performances of the employees also drop significantly. Mas and Pallais (2017) have also emphasized on maintaining a suitable level of employee satisfaction for helping them get motivated and perform their duties with success. However, as Moen et al. (2016) mentioned, some client based private organizations including call centers, software developers and others exert a bit too much pressure on the employees on the sole purpose of increasing the client base and revenue. Most of these private organizations have fixed shift hours and daily targets to be fulfilled. Despite these, the employees are forced to work extra each day and beyond shift hours without sufficient recess time or rest. For instance, if an organization has 10 AM to 6 PM shift hours, most of the time due to high work pressure and requirement to exceed daily target, one or more employees may need to work until 10 PM before they can leave office and go home.
According to Landy and Conte (2016), the elongated shift hours and extreme work pressure also significantly affect the health of the employees that in turn negatively affect their motivation for work and performance. Due to lack of sufficient recess time, the regular schedules of a normal human being like lunch, dinner, etc. is disrupted. As a result, the employees easily become sick and perform poorly in office in the process. According to Gereffi and Fernandez-Stark (2016), some organizations, especially the call centers require their employees to fulfill all their targets and exceed them each month. In this process, if an employee fails to reach even daily target, he is needed to compensate for it the next day. When the employee fails to meet the target for few days, the target lag stacks up quickly and results in the requirement for overtime duty. Overtime duties cause extreme stress on the employees as they need to work extra hard for fulfilling their targets.
Gr?goire and Lachance (2015) stated that the extreme amount of work pressure also results in hampering the work life balance of the employees. Most of the employees, who work overtime in their offices spend almost 10 to 15 hours daily in office and rest of the time they need to sleep to regain their energy for next day’s work. As a result, they do not have sufficient time to spend for domestic duties and attend the needs of the family members. Many of the employees have little kids who require attention and care of their parents to grow up normally.
Chau et al. (2016) stated in their research that the globalization of the industries has further worsened this issue. Globalization has resulted in international reach of the organizations; even the BPOs and call centers have started to attract international clients and enter the international market in the process. This globalization process has significantly increased the customer pool of the call centers; earlier they were having the national clients and now they are having access to international clients. On the other hand, the number of employees of the call centers has not increasing accordingly. Due to poor recruitment process and unwilling to spend more on employee wages, the call centers often rely on the current employees only to handle both national and international clients (Goodman, Mazerolle and Pitney 2015). Hence, once 20 employees had to handle 3000 national clients each day and with globalization, 30 employees have to handle 6000 national and international clients each day. Naturally, the work pressures of the employees have also increased significantly with the increase in the daily target to be fulfilled.
Correlation between Stress and Performance
According to Putnam, Myers and Gailliard (2014), the demands of the call centers are increasing with the fast growth of BPO. Most of the multinational organizations are outsourcing their customer service duties through the call centers as they are failing to incorporate the same within their business processes. As a result, the call centers are also growing in terms of the daily client call requirements and services. Hence, in order to maintain the requirements of clients from various time zones, the call centers are now kept open for 24 hours with changing shifts for the employees. However, that does not mean that the employees do not have to work extra. The employees need to far exceed their shift timings in order to fulfill their responsibilities before they are allowed to go home and rest.
As per Billing et al. (2014), while some employees in the call centers are brought in for night shifts, some others have day shifts but have to work till late night in order to fulfill the targets and duties. Hence, they have very little time to spare at home and almost always fail to meet their domestic responsibilities, often enraging the other family members.
However, Las Heras, Bosch and Raes (2015) said that some organizations have taken additional initiatives in order to ensure the employees do not lose their work life balance. These organizations occasionally allow the employees working for overtime for some days to work from home i.e. they are able to work without needing to go to office. At the same time, they can fulfill their domestic responsibilities along with performing office work. In spite of these initiatives, the employees are still under a lot of stress and lack of motivation that negatively affect their performances and domestic duties.
Introduction to Research and Chosen Methodology
There are several methodologies that can be used for research activities depending on the topic as well as the nature of the research. Some research methodologies involved only literature review and data collection from literature whereas some other research methodology involves conduction of survey and interviews to gather diverse statistical data (Mas and Pallais 2017). Generally, the methodologies are chosen based on the type of data needed for the project and suitable research parameters are chosen accordingly.
The chosen methodology for this research will include conduction of survey on 50 employees of Standard Chartered Bank, Sri Lanka and analysis of the same to reach the required conclusion.
Methodology Choice and Justification
According to Kelly et al. (2014), there are two main research methodologies that can be applied as per requirements – qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research method mainly depends upon literature and analysis of other data sources whereas quantitative research method mainly depends on the analysis of statistical data generated from survey and interviews (Janssens and Zanoni 2014). There is also a mixed methodology that involves both qualitative and quantitative research. In this case, the qualitative data collected is to be verified with the help of quantitative data.
For suiting the requirements of this project, quantitative research methodology will be most suitable as the data related to the research questions has to be collected from survey of the bank employees.
Research Strategy and Justification
Research strategy is a plan that requires developing a certain path through which, the research will be conducted. Without a research strategy, there will be no direction for the progress of the research (Lewis 2015). There are several research strategies that can be used like data collection and analysis from primary and secondary sources, literature survey and others (Agosti et al. 2015). However, for this particular research, survey and analysis strategy will be used supported by an initial literature analysis.
This strategy is chosen because the research requirement demands collection of reliable and unbiased data regarding stress and work pressure and it can be accomplished by the survey process. The initial literature review will ensure there is no scope creep occurring during the course of the research.
Population and Sampling
Population is defined as the entire set on which the survey / analysis will be conducted whereas sampling is the exact set on which the analysis is possible (Lewis 2015). For this research, population is the number of employees of SCB who will be invited for the survey and sample will be the actual number of employees participating in the research.
There are several sampling techniques available for the conduction of this research including both probability and non-probability sampling (Billing et al. 2014). Again in both these types, there are sub types of sampling and one is chosen based on the sample size and the nature of data to be investigated. For this research, the most suitable sampling technique will be stratified probability sampling and the survey will be done over 150 employees of the SCB. However, the estimated sample size is 50. The sampling and questionnaire interview process will help to determine actual data as per the real time experiences of the employees instead of works of other researchers that may be inaccurate and erroneous.
Data collection is defined as the process by which various types of data (primary and secondary) are collected in order to support the research conclusion as well as address the research question(s) (Gay and Mills 2015).
Data will be collected from literature review as well as the questionnaire interviews in which, the employees of SCB will be asked to answer a set of questions. In addition, secondary data will be collected from some sources of other researchers who published certain data from their own research activities. The collection of various types of data will ensure the concluding values are verified by data from different sources.
Every research requires a certain ethical approach to ensure there is no unethical, illegal or breach of confidentiality activities are used as tools for the research. Ethical approach must be followed throughout the course of the research (Lewis 2015). Since the research is based on the analysis of work conditions in a particular organization, it should be ensured no internal data or confidential information of the organization is disclosed in public while publishing the research (Albertsen et al. 2014). Also during the interview, no personal questions will asked to the employees and they will not be forced to speak about some internal information of the organization.
The ethical approach should be ensured in order to maintain confidentiality of the organization as well as the privacy and job security of the employees working in the organization under research.
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