In this essay, the article, entitled, ‘Emotions and emotional labor at worker-owned businesses: deep acting, surface acting and genuine emotions', written by Hoffmann EA and published in the journal of The Sociological Quarterly in the year 2016, will be reviewed. The most important aspects that will be covered in this essay is the relevance of the topic, the methodologies used and the overall impact the article has to the readers. The main thoughts and arguments of the authors and the specific groups that the article makes relevance to will also be highlighted. There are several things that were not known before but after reading this article they became very clear to the writer and hence these too will be emphasized. In brief, the title of the article is about dealing with various forms of emotions at the cooperative workplaces which are not permitted at conventional workplaces. The resulting emotions are of different types and hence the need to handle them well. The first part of this essay will deal with the aims, arguments and the way in which the research was conducted, findings and conclusion of the article. The social significance and the lessons learned from the review of this article will be highlighted too. Generally, this paper is aimed at giving an academic analysis of the specified journal, to present analytical skills gained.
Argument, methodology, and approaches used
In this article, the author categorically states that there are some emotions that are not acceptable to the hierarchical and conventional organizations and yet they are allowed in the cooperative organizations. However, there is a complete mixture of the worker cooperative emotions such as positive emotions like being enthusiastic and negative emotions like being sad. There are some other emotions which are displayed by the worker organizations (Hoffmann, 2016). These emotions involve pretending and acting as if to accept some things while in actual sense they are getting tired of an organizational process. According to the author, most employees make fantasies of working in an environment whereby their aspect of democracy is fully supported. However, some manage to achieve this by forming or joining of workers unions and cooperatives and other workers end up continuing to make more fantasies. For those who achieve the democracy levels at the places of work, they are able to act the roles of being the co-workers and the eco-managers of the organization.
According to the authors, the major benefits of this form of emotions are that they are important in the liberation of some emotions which could not have been realized in hierarchical or conventional organizations. In this particular case, the members of the cooperatively achieve democracy at the workplace surface and deep acting that are critical in the making of changes on both internal reactions to emotions as well as the flight of certainly recommended emotions. The main aim of this article was to examine the emotional labor which is common in worker cooperatives such as coal mining, taxicab driving, and production of organic foods and manufacturing of chemicals. Additionally, research and theory in the sociology of emotions and labor have been highlighted. Since most studies on emotions are targeted towards the emotional labor when working with the public, I this paper, the aspect of the intra-organizational emotions have also been highlighted.
In this paper, the author used the interview methods to collect data on the emotions display by cooperative worker employees. The main activities or sectors were food distribution, mining coal, driving taxicab and chemical manufacturing. The industries selected were to offer a wide range of cultures at the workplace. Each business was visited two times with making of interviews and observations. It is important that the study was conclusive enough because it covered all genders, the present and former employees, founding and new members and managers as well. The findings indicate differences in race, age, socioeconomic levels and varying levels of education (Hoffmann, 2016). The author would have considered giving the participants a letter of informed consent before initializing the interviews.
Having gone through this paper, it has been learned that the collective organizations at the workplace play vital roles based on the emotions. In most cases, the importance of worker cooperatives is not considered by sociologists, as compared to the way emotions are expressed in the organizations which are owned by the private and individuals. The positive emotions displayed by cooperative employees are critical in the broadening of the ideas as well as the necessary actions which can be taken while working. On the other hand, the display of a negative emotion is likely to lower the actions of a worker. Since most of the previous research involving the emotional labor such as monitoring, teaching, and enforcement of the emotional labor of workers, this paper uses different approaches.
Apart from the existing approaches, this article majorly focuses on the emotional labor which is necessary when considering the workers on their own. When labor emotions are targeted towards the needs of the workers, the equality at the workplace is enhanced at the workplace. Moreover, such approaches are very vital in the minimization of hierarchies that exists in organizations as well as the changes in the experiences at the places of work by the workers. The management and the cooperative workers also get to know the way in which positive or negative emotions are displayed. From this article, it is clear that the way in which cooperative employs display their emotions has great impacts to the meeting of the goals of the organization, including comforting of a client, loyalty of passengers and satisfying of the present customers. The customer contact by the employees in every organization requires that the way in which emotions are displayed enhance the realization of goals.
This article provides the importance of cooperative workers, primarily based on the way in which they affect the display of emotions. Since the emotions determine whether the organization will meet its goals, it is important that this process is regulated.
Hoffmann, E.A., 2016. Emotions and Emotional Labor at Worker-Owned Businesses: Deep Acting, Surface Acting, and Genuine Emotions. The Sociological Quarterly, 57(1), pp.152-173.