Electronic Measurement And Instrument Essay


Discuss about the Electronic Measurement and Instrument Management.



Kerberos is a protocol that is used for sharing the secret information and it makes use of the trusted third party to evaluate the identity like usernamne and password of the client. The clients may be either users, servers or may be a software. The trusted third party is known as the Key Distribution Center called KDC which is used to run the Daemons of the Kerberos [1] . Kereberos has the ability to make the enterprise in a secured manner. The Kerberos are used to send the passwords of the plaintext in a secured way which is transmitted in a network. This system is used for centralizing the information of the user like username and password which is used for data manipulation. Ultimately it is used in the prevention of storing password information by reducing the chance in which a single machine's compromise will make results in other compromises [2].

Use of kerberos in User Authentication

Kerberos varies from the authentication method which includes username and password. Inspite of authenticating one user to one network service, Kerberos makes use of the encryption method and also a trusted third party for user authentication. The trusted third party is called as KDC and while the user authenticate the KDC, this party sends a ticket of the session to the machine of the user. Kerberos aware services searches for the tickets on the machine of the user. The kerberos aware network keeps the logs and send their principal to the trusted third party which is KDC. The KDC verifies the principal in its database and it creates a TGT in an encrypted form, the TGT is being sent to that user. The user can make use of the TGT whenever he wants to access the network [5].

The Kerberos is designed to identify the authentication problem in network by using the trusted client systems. The Kerberos network environment is shown above. It contains the Router, switch, application server, Main server, client, web service client and Administrative client. When the application server receive the Kerberos token for authentication, it use the Web service client to establish the security [1]. Once the security is established. The application server login management the module by using the client permissions. The application server and main server does not use the same user registry and it requires the custom login module to map the Kerberos principal name and application server user name. The application server provides the new security and it contains he various domains. The domains are only support the Kerberos at the cell level. The application server must be using the same Kerberos realm. The Kerberos authentication having the own Kerberos realm by using the backend and client resources. The Kerberos using the application library to provides the interface for application server and application clients. The Kerberos encrypting the data. It provides the network security by using the various methods. The administrative server is used to provide the network interface to the database.

Security Objectives

Confidentiality is similar to privacy which includes the access of the information only by the authorized users. So in the above network diagram we had used separate switches for client and web service client. As the switches are separate there is less chance for affecting the confidentiality of the information that is being transmitted.

Integrity is nothing but the accuracy of the information in which the data should not be changed and it should have the assurance that it cannot be modified by any unauthorized access. Router passes the information to 3 different switches that can send the information to the Application server. The server is used as a mediator between the client and the switch, so there is no possibility of modifying the information by the unauthorised access.

Availability is associated with the hardware. The system should be ready to perform when there is any hardware failure. The information should be available even after the failure. Here as there is a server in the above network diagram in case of hardware repair in the client systems, the information can be backed up from the application server.

Difference between Version 4 and Version 5

Version 4 and Version 5 of kerberos are the updations of the Kerberos software. Kerberos v5 is the successor of v4. Kerberos v4 was released at the end of 1980 and v5 was published in 1993. Kerberos Version 4 utilizes the reciever makes right system for encoding purpose whereas Version 5 uses the ASN.1 system for encoding. Kerberos v4 provides the satisfactory support for ticket whereas v5 facilitates forward and renewal of packets during transmission. V4 contains ony few IP address but V5 contains multiple IP addresses. Version 4 has no present support for authentication but v5 provides the reasonable support for authentication [6]. version 4 of kerberos uses Data Encryption Standard to offer the service of authentication. To improve the security in the network, kerberos 5 has been added with few enhanced features. Kerberos version 5 has limitations in addresses. In kerberos version 4 kerberos to kerberos relationship is required whereas Version 5 can support only fewer relationships [7].

Kerberos are used in the Network based organizations. For example it can be used in cyber security systems and the organizations which makes use of the cyber crime and security. It is quiet difficult to list the companies which and all uses the kerberos. So some few companies which are familiar are listed below and those are the companies which is related to the products based on Cyber Security management. It is used approximately by 100 million people around the world for the security purpose. The organizations that make use of the kerberos for some of their products is listed as follows

Few software that needs license from SAP involves Kerberos implementation. When it is being used, there will not be interoperability issues or copy right changes.

The Microsoft is one of the leading companies which uses the kerberos protocol in some of their products. Microsoft windows and Microsoft active directory uses the kerberos. In this microsoft network users perform authentication process using the kerberos protocol. The credentials provided can be used later by the user to various other applications which are enabled by kerberos [9].


D. Kapse and V. Bagdi, "Efficient Security Services of Honeypot using Kerberos for Detecting Intruders", International Journal of System and Software Engineering, vol. 3, no. 2, 2015.

"An Overview of a Kerberos Infrastructure", Tldp.org, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30- Aug- 2017].

"threats and attacks on user authentication in a cloud environment", 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30- Aug- 2017].

E. EMANDII, "AUTHENTICATION - THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES", Scientific Bulletin of Naval Academy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 378-381, 2016.

X. Ma, J. Han, Z. Wei and H. Liu, "Hierarchical proxy authentication model in Kerberos inter-realm based on RSA", JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENT, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 105-109, 2013.

"Difference between Kerberos v4 and Kerberos v5 | Kerberos v4 vs Kerberos v5", Differencebetween.info, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30- Aug- 2017].

A. B.A., "Kerberos: A Review of the Modification in Versions 4-To-5 Transition", African journal of computing & ICT reference format, vol. 6, no. 3, 2013.

"Kerberos, Pluto's oddball moon", New Scientist, vol. 226, no. 3024, p. 16, 2015.

"Organizations that use kerberos", cybersafe, 2017. .

"Commercial Kerberos vendors", Web.ornl.gov, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30- Aug- 2017].

How to cite this essay: