Effects Urgent Treatment Ischiemic Attack Essay


What Is The Effects Urgent Treatment Ischiemic Attack?



CVD are referred to as the disease affecting the heart together with the blood vessels (Bannick Wells, Broad J, 2006). Fat/plagues deposits accumulate in the blood vessels hence blocking the free flow of blood to various parts of the body. This atherosclerosis deposit makes the blood vessel to narrow than it is supposed to be making a blood clot. If the arteries block completely, then it may bring about heart attack and stroke in the long run.

Occurs when there is partial or incomplete flow of blood to the heart muscles (Lasaster, 2013). When the clot happens in the coronary it may completely block the blood flow hence depriving the heart oxygen and other essential nutrients for its functions. Heart attack can be very dangerous and can lead to death if not responded on tine. It can also lead to complete damage of the heart muscles so that it may not function again. (Moos, 2015)

Stroke is an emergence condition that occurs when the blood supply carrying oxygen to the brain tissue is blocked. This deprives the brain its important nutrients hence dying off with time (Jay Herbison, 2003).it is believed that most women are affected by stroke than men and especially African American taking at least 60% of those affected. There are two types of stroke them being the hemorrhagic and the ischemic stroke both having some different cause and therefore differ in treatment. Ischemic stroke is caused by the constriction of blood vessels, which blocks and reduces blood flow to the brains hence its treatment concentrates on making sure there is enough blood flow to the brains (Rothwell PM, 2007).

Statement of the problem

Cardiovascular disease has become a major problem around the world affecting more than 7million in United Kingdom according to the previous study done and is a major cause of death, permanent disabilities and weakening the population at large (Bannick Wells, Broad J, 2006) (Londo BE, 2007). CVD is responsible for approximate 30% death of individuals of close to 150000people in the UK. Healthcare units have been using a lot of cash close to 9billion pounds in trying to control this disease and non-healthcare services using about 5billions pounds on the same.


Our concern will address the patients and groups affected by cardiovascular diseases, within our specified area, try to compare what has been done previously by the healthcare services, policies formulated by the government, research done by other people and how we can improve on them to provide a better finding of this problem.

  1. Look and asses those studies on the current investigations of literatures, national policies formulated, reports by different organisations against our findings and compare to nutrition, exercise, medication, changing lifestyle behaviour to promote and improve outcome of CVD.
  2. Use information obtained from literature review, reports and surveys to make the design of questions and semi structured interviews of individual representative samples to get the information of patient lifestyle and identify where we can change or improve patients’ life for those at risk and those living with CVDs.
  3. Identify the existing gaps on the previous researches, reports, findings and add value to the existing ones by adding new findings or improving on the already done ones.
  4. Asses the best priorities that will be used for future researches, policy frameworks and sending our results to specialists, health practioners, government and using their priorities for future studies.

Study design

A very complete literature review was designed. All eligible information was used as long as it had a good information reporting. It had no reservations for the language, distance covered and population size. Most reports in the library whether electronic and hardcopies were included if they had considered cardiovascular diseases and had patient’s database.

Eligibility criteria

Studies were eligible if it contains information related to cardiovascular diseases and other related health on appropriate population in this study,

Information sources and search

Information were searched through database from January 20000 to December 2017 and they included among the following. literature of nursing health, Health technology database, journals of epidemiology, health information management, abstracts, health science books, British electronic books, applied social science books, journals on CVDs, Yemen National institute of Health, Education resource information on health, New York PMC free medical, world health organization books and reports, health technology Assessments among others.

Information were searched in libraries and advanced google search options that based on specific pages of these researches. Electronic and library searches were not only enough but also experts of specific fields were conducted to provide clue on certain information that is included here in this research.

Selection criteria was done based on the persons willingness to participate, age and appropriate topic e.g. exposed to the risk of cardiovascular disease or already having the same condition and on medical care.

Inclusion criteria

References were included in this scope if it contained the information that was original on the topic being researched and had patients with this type of disease, either took medication or not, their outcome was not known or unavoidable.

Exclusion criteria

All bibliography and citations were excluded if they had or lacked the following?

  • If the information was not relevant on the topic being searched
  • If the book was inaccessible but had the right information
  • Had no appropriate languages in this case English
  • If it contained information that were used elsewhere by other studies.
  • If the information contained wrong un applicable population being studied.
  • Contained information that could not be ascertained through other sources.
  • Had information that was too general and not specific to the topic discussed

Assessment and management including Therapies directed to these individuals are


  • Speech therapy helps the individual to concentrate, think and talk in a logic manner.
  • Occupation therapy concentrates in helping the individual carry out his or her daily routine as before e.g. bathing
  • Physical therapy helps the patient know how to coordinate muscles, walk and move freely.
  • Support groups that may help him cope with the situation and accept the outcome.

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

There are a number of ways a person may be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. They include the following

Physical inactivity

Exercise in a greater chance helps people to control their body weight, control blood sugars, pressure and other diseases (Parterson D, 2009). People who do not perform physical activity are at a higher risk of developing this condition than ones who do physical activity on daily basis. Physical activity helps the body to be active and burn carbohydrate/fats in the body alleviating the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (Bouman A, 2009).


When a person is exposed to smoking, their blood vessels are exposed to smoke and other chemicals inside the tobacco that makes it inflamed, swell and block the blood flow to various parts of the body e.g. the heart and brain (Flagha, 2015),this hence leading to conditions such as stroke, Coronary Heart Diseases and others.

Effects of smoking

  • It destroys the inside lining of the blood vessels hence pile up of fats hence narrowing the arteries.
  • Oxygen is reduced by the carbon monoxide of the tobacco and hence making the heart to pump harder in order to get enough oxygen.
  • Adrenaline produced after smoking makes the heart to race faster, this is the effects of nicotine that may lead to high blood pressure.

Obese and being overweight

These are the conditions by which the body weight exceeds the recommended body weight one by world health organization (I, 2008). Obese and overweight are the most dangerous way of developing cardiovascular diseases.it increase the blood pressure, increases blood cholesterol level and increases the chance of developing type 2 diabetes.

Family history

This happens if you father/brother developed it when under the age of 55yrears and mother or sister below the age of 65years.genes from these parents pass over to their children together with some illness such as diabetes and high blood pressure. This non-modifiable risk factor makes one with little interventions but can control other risks by having a good diet, maintaining a healthy body weight, reducing blood pressure and managing blood cholesterol.

High cholesterol in blood.

Cholesterol is produced naturally in the liver and others are obtained from the foods we eat every day (Mayne, 2012).This cholesterol helps to transport proteins in our body and is so essential as far as protein is concerned. Bad cholesterol clogs the blood vessels hence blocking it and makes the blood flow a problem, which can lead to heart attack or even stroke. High cholesterol in the body is brought by a number of factors e.g.

  • Eating too much fatty foods
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Physical inactivity
  • Genetics
  • Advanced age
  • Gender

Steps of improving this condition

The best exercise one can perform to have a fit heart is the intensive/moderate ones. This moderate aerobic exercise makes the body to be warm, sweat and strengthen the body muscles of the heart (Taylor Piliae, 2006). How to exercise is so simple as long as one follows the steps of exercise daily e.g. (Taylor Piliae, 2010)

  • Walk while going to job than using your car. You can also use public means that drops you few meters from where you are going to enable you walk.
  • Do not sit down for long hours e.g., when you are in office. Take some time to walk around the department or around the office/compound.

Quit smoking

Smoking alleviates the risk of developing heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases and therefore there is a good reason to reduce or quit smoking all along (Flagha, 2015). People who also are exposed to passive smoking are at high risk and should find a way of avoiding the same (Londo BE, 2007). There are different ways of reducing and quitting smoking completely. They are;

  • Reduce from the number of cigarettes you are smoking daily by one each day until you leave completely.
  • Replace nicotine with other products that can make you quit and lose interest in smoking. Stick to it and make sure it becomes your habit.
  • Go for rehabilitation; find a center with support group that can help you deal with smoking. Get the right friends and experts there in the rehabilitation center to share effects of smoking and how you can leave it completely.

Healthy eating

Balanced diet is essential in our daily life. Eating well makes our body strong, grow and be resistant to infections (Mayne, 2012)..

Foods to eat

  • Daily intake of very fresh fruits and leafy vegetables daily at least five servings. Eating most of these feels the stomach and reduces the urge to eat again. It can be fresh, frozen dried. They can be broccoli, pear, carrots and strawberries.
  • Whole grain starch grains e.g. brown bread and avoids or reduces refined ones.
  • Use less of red meat and consider low fat meat and white meat.
  • Only take small amounts of fats, sugars and salt. Too much salt intake increases the risk of getting high blood pressure and therefore coronary disease.
  • Alcohol consumption should be limited or left completely as it has high calories that lead to formation of high blood cholesterol and increases chances of developing hypertension.

Fats are important for our daily functions of the heart and it is to be consumed daily. Eating fats daily should involve careful selection to avoid consuming those that can harm the body (JP Block, 2011).

Stress management

Stress is also a contributor to heart diseases as it increases the blood lipids that get deposited in the blood vessels (MF Kilkinney, 2014). Living in a hostile environment increases the cardiac events and blood pressure in the long run. A person with high blood pressure has a likelihood of either being associated with stress. Stress management is key in making sure that a person does not develop these conditions. Relaxation while listening to music, visiting friends and doing exercise is key in managing stress. Yoga exercise increases concentration and relaxation at the same time it also reduces the electrical impulses associated with poor blood circulation. It increases the blood flow during meditation and most people who attend yoga every time have lower chances of getting CVDs

Summary of evidence

Cardiovascular disease affects many organs than just the heart. Elevated blood pressure is dangerous to the kidney as it can lead to kidney failure, impotence in men, dementia and other conditions such as stroke. When blood pressure exceeds 140/90, mmhg of the normal measure then there is a problem. The higher your blood pressure the more you are likely to be affected, the lower your blood pressure the lower chances of you being affected. Every person needs to check and see the doctor whenever their blood pressure goes up so that they can be managed. Medication is available for those individuals who cannot take the exercise challenge and nutrition.

Limitations of study

The limitation of study was based on secondary information rather than the primary source. Some secondary sources could be having problems of bias, outdated information and information that favor the researcher. Laboratory assessment was not included as it would be expensive to conduct such like a project. Funding this particular research depended only on the researcher and hence difficulty in providing extensive information about the topic being discussed.

The findings that actually conflicted with this type of study was

  • Lack of supporting evidence based on the food or exercise that patients are advised to eat and perform.
  • No clear references that people could look up to in order to get clear information on what they are to do.
  • Delay in diagnosing patients with glaring CVDs that could affect them in future.
  • Lack of clear medication that will help the patient to recover.
  • No or partial information to those studied so that they may use it in future.
  • Some information is conflicting about the causal of CVDs that confuses the patient.


CVDs can be serious disease if left to the people without evidenced research such as this to find a solution to the problem. As seen, most people die annually from this cardiovascular disease in all developing and developed countries. Cardiovascular diseases are in form of stroke, heart attack, high blood pressure among other conditions. Having good lifestyle like good nutrition, exercise, managing stress and monitoring your health such as blood pressure can make somebody aware and prevent such disease.


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Flagha, A. F., 2015, july. the cost effective of three smoking cessationprograms. American journal of Public health, 162-165.

I, J., 2008. Reducing risks,promoting health life. Geneva: World Health Organisation.

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