What Is The Effects Of Poverty On The Mental Emotional?
Housing is considered as one of the most significant components of life for giving safety, shelter and warmth. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention or strategies in promoting environment, housing and wellbeing. This particular study has focused to evaluate the importance of housing for the wellbeing of community. Here, community refers to the homeless people who cannot expose their skill and talents due to the lack of proper shelter and job opportunity. Most of the homeless people die at the age of young with an average age of 47 in comparison to 77 for the general population (NHS Choices 2011). As per the statistical data of London, around 8000 people like to sleep rough on the street of London as per every year. Among them large number of people are immigrants coming in the soil of London due to employability scope and opportunity.
Barking and Dagenham Community in London aims to provide voluntary services to the society by executing various activities (lbbd.gov.uk 2018). This very specific study has chosen this community to analyze on how Barking and Dagenham Community has provided effective support to the homeless people by providing job opportunities. Most of the homeless people are the victim of violent crimes. In addition, large numbers of people intend to commit suicide being homeless and saturated in their lifestyle. This very specific study has provided in-depth understanding on how a proper housing, environment and wellbeing is important for the homeless community people. Various strategies and interventions are critically analyzed on how the needs and demands of the homeless community people can be achieved. As per Annual Healthcare Report 2015, in every night of London, there are 30 rough sleepers, 100 people from destitute and squatting, 600 householders in emergency accommodation and 2,100 households are in temporary accommodation (NHS Choices 2011).
Homeless people do not get that scope to reveal their talent due to economic barrier as well as sustainability issue. As a result, large numbers of people due to the lack of proper security are losing their lives. Therefore, Barking and Dagenham Community aims to improve health, housing and social care of homeless people. As emphasized by Clark et al. (2012), housing is the basic component of human being for getting a proper shelter and security. The underlining concept housing not only aims to fulfill the needs and demands of the human by providing a safe and secured place but also it helps in developing the economic development of country. Getting a proper shelter is the basic need of a human being, based on which the individual can flourish own skills and competencies. As a result, the country can easily render its overall social development. More than 300,000 people in Britain are officially recorded to live being homeless. It is observed that large number of Multinational Corporation is situated in London who is hiring ample employees for providing effective services. Therefore, people belonging to developing countries decide to take their shelter in London for availing the scope of employability. In this kind of situation, the number of immigrants has been raised widely who are unable to get proper shelter in the soil of London. However, Wells, Evans and Cheek (2016) have pointed out that an effective environment and housing is highly important for giving a healthy like of a human being. Every single human being is possessed with proper skills and talents. Therefore, human being should get that platform to show their skills and talents.
Environmental factors leaving impact on wellbeing of homeless people:
In order to provide a shelter and security to the homeless people environmental theory is highly appropriate. This very specific theory aims to provide in-depth overview on how an effective environment influences the mind of a people. In order to lead healthy and peaceful life human needs to have a proper and healthy environment so that individuals get proper motivation in rendering their career growth. Barking and Dagenham Community by implementing this particular theory has aimed to provide a proper environment to the homeless children so that they can show their skills and talents.
Unsworth, Dmitrieva and Adriasola (2013) stated that homelessness is one of the most important reasons for the growth of public health issue. More than fifty percent of homeless people have to face immense physical challenges for staying in an insecure and unsafe shelter. In addition, large number of people is there who are very much talented and skillful in various extracurricular activities. Due to some of the major barriers especially homelessness, people find innumerable challenges and difficulties in enhancing their skill and competency level. This very specific study has focused to make in-depth overview on how Barking and Dagenham Community can give a proper shelter to the homeless people for maintaining health and wellbeing of homeless people.
As per the point of view of different eminent scholars, a proper housing renders security and safety among the people based on which they can explore their skills and talents. In many cases, it has been observed that people from other countries tend to migrate in western countries for more employability opportunity. Turley et al. (2012) stated that people from various geographical backgrounds and attitudes do not get sufficient space to settle down after coming in foreign country for their future growth. As a result, many of them have to spend several nights in being homeless. In this kind of situation, those people do not get their scope in revealing their skills and competency being unable to get a proper shelter. In this situation, Barking and Dagenham Community provides a proper housing to those people for developing the health and wellbeing of a person (Perlman et al. 2012). In addition, people belonging to various geographical boundaries and attitudes have to face hardships in getting accustomed with the culture of a new country.
Yoshikawa, Aber and Beardslee (2012) opined that attention is devoted to the effectiveness of intervention for homeless families who have to live their life being insecure. As per the statistic about western countries, on the overall population, 36% of the people are homeless and 50% are well sheltered. In the year 2010, the department of health stated that people spending their lives in hostel, squat, streets, trains and all have to face mental and physical health problem. Barking and Dagenham Community analyses that homelessness is the serious cause of maintaining unhealthy lifestyle such as smoking, having drugs, using alcohol and so on. After being detached from home large number of people gets involved in different anti-social activities. As a result, it ultimately affects the society from being developed and educated. As per the opinion of Grimshaw et al. (2012), preventing homeless and promoting housing has immense benefits and facilities for people’s housing outcome. Large number of people after getting a proper shelter has changed their lifestyle by directing themselves towards right path.
La Placa, McNaught and Knight (2013) stated that homelessness can be analyzed by social determinant theory, which primarily indicates that social and economic factors leave a major impact on the wellbeing and health factors of human. Factors line income, place, gender, employment and education affect on homelessness. These particular factors primarily determine whether an individual human would be able to afford housing and food in leading a healthy regular life (Reisch and Jani 2012). On the other hand, theory of social constructionism implies that society is constituted with two types of personalities including owners and workers. According to Karl Marks, the formers have psychology to show constant dominating attitude towards later. As a result, the society is facing a major gap between “haves” and “have’s not”. Baron et al. (2014) opined that the primary aim of sociological theory is to reduce the gap between haves” and “have’s not. People who are suffering from homelessness should get a platform of showing their skills and competencies. Barking and Dagenham Community by following this particular theory has aimed to provide the children a proper shelter so that their competency and talents are used towards a positive path.
The community and its needs:
This very specific study has focused to give an in-depth overview on how Barking and Dagenham Community needs a proper assistance for leading a healthy and systematic association for improving housing and social care of homeless people. Homeless people in search of housing have to face several challenges and are as follows:
Homeless people being unsettled have to face immense challenges in carrying their belongings and supplies every place they wander. This specific issue is a serious burden of an individual (Nader et al. 2012). Therefore, Barking and Dagenham Community should give a proper shelter and job opportunity to those people.
Pons-Vigu?s et al. (2014) opined that without having any housing facility people have to face challenges after being targeted from anti-social activists. In addition, it has also been observed that after being deprived of receiving a proper housing and shelter the people get provoked in associating with anti-social activities. Barking and Dagenham Community should provide motivation to those people for avoiding in being involved within anti-social deeds.
Due to the lack of permanent address, the homeless people have to roam around here and there. As a result, it becomes very much difficult for Barking and Dagenham Community for keeping a track about the whereabouts of those people.
After facing any kind of health issue, be it mental or physical the homeless people have to face immense difficulties in admitting their member to any health care center due to economic constraints (Salimi et al. 2012). Maintaining the cost of treatment is one of the most effective challenges for those people.
Streets are not very safe for young aged women. Anti-social activists tend to target those helpless women easily after seeing themselves homeless. As a result, large numbers of women have to become victimized due to homelessness (Cabassa et al. 2013). Large numbers of incidents are occurring regarding sexual harassment and molestation on women, which ultimately resulted a negative influence on the society. Barking and Dagenham Community should take effective initiativesby providing a proper shelter to the homeless people.
After evaluating the issues of homeless people facing due to housing, it has been observed that safety and security is the primary concern that most of the people have to face (Yoshikawa, Aber and Beardslee 2012). Especially women have to face immense challenges in leading a safe and secured life due to the occurrence of those anti-social activities. In addition, Woods et al. (2013) has opined that lack of employability opportunity is one of the most effective challenges that homeless people have to face. Due to the lack of a proper shelter large number of people, having enough competency and skills cannot show their proper talents. Baral et al. (2013) opposed the point of view of previous scholar. As per the opinion of this author, homeless people have to face innumerable hardships after facing immense difficulties in making their health treatment. Those kinds of people do not have sufficient economic strength of admitting their children in a reputed health care center for better treatment.
Behind selecting Barking and Dagenham Community as the target community, numerous eminent scholars have provided own point of views. As per the point of view of Wright, Masten and Narayan, (2013), western government has taken some of the major strategies and policies for helping those homeless people in quest of developing their lifestyle. However, London government has taken several initiatives for reducing the rate of people from being homeless. Government has targeted ?30 million fund for 2018 to 2019 for local authorities with high levels of rough sleeping. As per future estimation, London government has targeted to eliminate homelessness by 2027 (Gov.london 2018). By implementing homeless reduction act, London government has decided to overcome the entire crisis of homeless people between the years 2022 to 2027.
It has also been observed that large number of labor associated with private organization tends to spend their night on street. Therefore, in order to help those rough sleeping workers London government has estimated ?100,000 funding. In addition, government of London is making a negotiation with National Housing Federation to look for providing additional co-ordination to the rough sleepers across the country (Gov.UK 2018). In addition, government has instructed numerous active non-profit organizations as well for sharing their skills to the homeless people in order to make them understand about the positive consequences of housing (Blacksher and Lovasi 2012).
Barking and Dagenham Community has implemented some of the major strategies in order to improve the homelessness. The primary strategies are as follows:
- Working with territories to implement with homeless policy academy
- Work with governor, mayor as well as tribal organizations for maintaining a policy focused on homelessness
- Providing training and development session to the workers regarding homelessness
- Providing opportunity to the homeless people in showing their competency and skills
Homeless Reduction Policy should be implemented within the various territories of London based on which the government can reduce the rate of homeless people. Government would be estimated certain amount of budget for developing those territories where the rate of homeless people is high. Steg et al. (2012) opined that National housing federation has taken immense initiatives for changing the lifestyle of homeless people (Britto et al. 2017). The volunteers associated with this very specific organization has taken initiative of identifying the skills and talents of homeless community. After identifying their skill, the association has focused to make an in-depth analysis for providing them a right platform. After the initiation of London government, numerous non-profit organizations have also faced innumerable initiatives for eliminating homelessness. The associates of this very specific organization have focused to implement training and development session. With the help of this very specific training and development session, the professionals would be enhanced communication skill (Lubans et al. 2012). As a result, they can communicate with the people of different geographical backgrounds and attitudes without facing language barriers. An effective training would help the homeless people to understand about the importance of improving the lifestyle of human being for developing society. Housing enables a person to maintain personal health. As a result, it would help for the wellbeing of community.
This very specific study has provided in-depth analysis about the importance of housing for the development and wellbeing of homeless people. It has been observed that in LONDON , around 8000 people have to sleep rough on the street of London as per every year. Among them large number of people are immigrants coming in the soil of London due to employability scope and opportunity. Large numbers of homeless people are the victim of violent crime. Especially women are the ultimate victim of sexual abuses. In order to provide a peaceful World the government should make an effective initiative based on which the rate of homeless people can be reduced. Every single human being is possessed with proper skills and talents. Therefore, human being should get that platform to show their skills and talents. Homeless people do not get that scope to reveal their talent due to economic barrier as well as sustainability issue.
Barking and Dagenham Community after initiating homeless reduction policy, providing training and development session to the workers regarding homelessness is the primary initiatives taken by the government of London. In addition, the initiatives taken by the non-profit organizations have helped these kinds of people immensely in understanding the value and importance of housing. Lubans et al. (2012) stated that people endowed with good skill and competency can get the scope of showing their skills and talents after the initiatives of non-profit organizations. However, in the real World scenario of twenty first century, it is observed that large number of homeless people is still prevailing in the soil of London. Some of the major recommendations can be provided in this context:
- Skill development and livelihood of homeless people:
In order to develop the skills and livelihood of homeless people Barking and Dagenham Community would have to take more effective initiatives and policies. This particular intuitive would help in educating the homeless people on how they have to face challenges in being out of home and proper services (Jennings et al. 2012). People from various geographical backgrounds and attitudes have linguistic barriers. Therefore, the social activists may have to face challenges in dealing with these kinds of people. However, professional by enhancing their skills and level of competency in communication skill should interact with homeless people to make them understand about the negative outcome of being unsheltered. By cooperating with National Housing Federation, London government can take an initiative of eliminating the rate of homelessness from Western countries.
- Major initiatives can be taken on behalf of department of health and social care:
It has been observed that large number of homeless people have to lose their life after facing serious health disease. Lubans et al. (2012) opined that economic constraints are one of the most effective reasons due to which people fail to afford sufficient amount of money for treatment. However, this very specific study has focused to make an in-depth overview on how department of health and social care can take an initiative for those homeless people so that those people can make their treatment effortlessly (Liau et al. 2013). Department of health and social care should initiate some innovative plans and policies based on which homeless people get the scope to overcome serious diseases being treated from health care service providers.
- Implementation of government plans and policies:
As emphasized by Liau et al. (2013) some of the major plans and policies are created for overcoming homelessness across western countries. Among those policies community residences, housing first, homeless reduction are the most prominent. It has been observed however that these specific regulations are not effectively used on behalf of Barking and Dagenham Community. Consequently, large number of homeless people still has to face immense barriers in de developing their lives. Women have to face immense hardships in restricting themselves from anti-social activists. Due to the implementation of these policies, homeless people would get immense benefits and facilities in establishing their place within organization. The level of employability opportunities would be increased automatically.
Baral, S., Logie, C.H., Grosso, A., Wirtz, A.L. and Beyrer, C., 2013. Modified social ecological model: a tool to guide the assessment of the risks and risk contexts of HIV epidemics. BMC public healthcare, 13(1), p.482.
Baron, S.L., Beard, S., Davis, L.K., Delp, L., Forst, L., Kidd?Taylor, A., Liebman, A.K., Linnan, L., Punnett, L. and Welch, L.S., 2014. Promoting integrated approaches to reducing health inequities among low?income workers: Applying a social ecological framework. American journal of industrial medicine, 57(5), pp.539-556.
Blacksher, E. and Lovasi, G.S., 2012. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment. Health & place, 18(2), pp.172-179.
Britto, P.R., Lye, S.J., Proulx, K., Yousafzai, A.K., Matthews, S.G., Vaivada, T., Perez-Escamilla, R., Rao, N., Ip, P., Fernald, L.C. and MacMillan, H., 2017. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. The Lancet, 389(10064), pp.91-102.
Cabassa, L.J., Parcesepe, A., Nicasio, A., Baxter, E., Tsemberis, S. and Lewis-Fern?ndez, R., 2013. Health and wellness photovoice project: engaging consumers with serious mental illness in health care interventions. Qualitative Health Research, 23(5), pp.618-630.
Clark, F., Jackson, J., Carlson, M., Chou, C.P., Cherry, B.J., Jordan-Marsh, M., Knight, B.G., Mandel, D., Blanchard, J., Granger, D.A. and Wilcox, R.R., 2012. Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in promoting the well-being of independently living older people: results of the Well Elderly 2 Randomised Controlled Trial. J Epidemiol Community Health, 66(9), pp.782-790.
Gov.London . (2018). Welcome to GOV.LONDON . [online] Available at: /government/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2018].
Grimshaw, J.M., Eccles, M.P., Lavis, J.N., Hill, S.J. and Squires, J.E., 2012. Knowledge translation of research findings. Implementation science, 7(1), p.50.
Jennings, V., Johnson Gaither, C. and Gragg, R.S., 2012. Promoting environmental justice through urban green space access: A synopsis. Environmental Justice, 5(1), pp.1-7.
La Placa, V., McNaught, A. and Knight, A., 2013. Discourse on wellbeing in research and practice. International Journal of Wellbeing, 3(1).
lbbd.gov.uk. 2018, Business [online] Barking and Dagenham Community. Available at: [Accessed 20 April.2018]
Liau, A., Crepaz, N., Lyles, C.M., Higa, D.H., Mullins, M.M., DeLuca, J., Petters, S., Marks, G. and HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) Team, 2013. Interventions to promote linkage to and utilization of HIV medical care among HIV-diagnosed persons: a qualitative systematic review, 1996–2011. AIDS and Behavior, 17(6), pp.1941-1962.
Lubans, D.R., Morgan, P.J., Weaver, K., Callister, R., Dewar, D.L., Costigan, S.A., Finn, T.L., Smith, J., Upton, L. and Plotnikoff, R.C., 2012. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities. BMC public health, 12(1), p.427.
Nader, P.R., Huang, T.T.K., Gahagan, S., Kumanyika, S., Hammond, R.A. and Christoffel, K.K., 2012. Next steps in obesity prevention: altering early life systems to support healthy parents, infants, and toddlers. Childhood Obesity (Formerly Obesity and Weight Management), 8(3), pp.195-204.
Nhs.uk. 2018, About [online] NHS Choices. Available at: [Accessed 20 April.2018]
Perlman, S., Cowan, B., Gewirtz, A., Haskett, M. and Stokes, L., 2012. Promoting positive parenting in the context of homelessness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(3), pp.402-412.
Pons-Vigu?s, M., Diez, ?., Morrison, J., Salas-Nic?s, S., Hoffmann, R., Burstrom, B., Van Dijk, J.P. and Borrell, C., 2014. Social and health policies or interventions to tackle health inequalities in European cities: a scoping review. BMC public health, 14(1), p.198.
Reisch, M. and Jani, J.S., 2012. The new politics of social work practice: Understanding context to promote change. The British Journal of Social Work, 42(6), pp.1132-1150.
Salimi, Y., Shahandeh, K., Malekafzali, H., Loori, N., Kheiltash, A., Jamshidi, E., Frouzan, A.S. and Majdzadeh, R., 2012. Is community-based participatory research (CBPR) useful? A systematic review on papers in a decade. International journal of preventive medicine, 3(6), p.386.
Steg, L., van den Berg, A.E. and De Groot, J.I. eds., 2012. Environmental psychology: An introduction. John Wiley & Sons.
Turley, R., Saith, R., Bhan, N., Rehfuess, E. and Carter, B., 2012. Slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment and infrastructure interventions and their effects on health and socio-economic outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 1.
Unsworth, K.L., Dmitrieva, A. and Adriasola, E., 2013. Changing behaviour: Increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating pro?environmental behaviour change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(2), pp.211-229.
Wells, N.M., Evans, G.W. and Cheek, K.A., 2016. Environmental psychology. Environmental health: From global to local, 203.
Woods, L.N., Lanza, A.S., Dyson, W. and Gordon, D.M., 2013. The role of prevention in promoting continuity of health care in prisoner reentry initiatives. American journal of public health, 103(5), pp.830-838.
Wright, M.O.D., Masten, A.S. and Narayan, A.J., 2013. Resilience processes in development: Four waves of research on positive adaptation in the context of adversity. In Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 15-37). Springer, Boston, MA.
Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J.L. and Beardslee, W.R., 2012. The effects of poverty on the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children and youth: implications for prevention. American Psychologist, 67(4), p.272.