Effects Of Poverty On Children Essay

Question:

How poverty effects on the children’s health and wellbeing in tea estates in Sri Lanka.

Answer:

Introduction

According to the report of UNICEF, Sri Lanka is among those developing nations, which is recovering poverty and the poverty related issues on a fast pace. It has been recorded by the UNICEF report of the year 2009, that no child has been recruited from the year 2009 and Sri Lanka has successfully completed the “Security Council-mandated” programs (Deckard 2015). At the same time, it has been identified that Sri Lanka has shown a fair amount of progress in working on the rehabilitation as well as reintegration of all the former child combatants. Sri-Lanka has also made a successful approach to the need of “Child-friendly education and it has helped the country in encouraging schools and communities to work together for addressing the necessities of the “out-of-school” children. In Sri-Lanka, most of the “out-of-school” children belong to the tea-estate (Galgamuwa et al. 2017). Most disappointingly, instead of pursuing the aforementioned progress, the country could not have properly addressed the crisis existing among the children of the tea estate. The reason for the drop outs is immense poverty and according to varied studies, the socio-economic status of more than 61% of the households of the estate sector belong to the below the poverty level (Ilyas 2014).

Most importantly, according to the domestic census and the statistic report of 2003, the highest level of “intra-sector” level poverty is found in the tea or estate sector of Sri Lanka. Studies have also highlighted the fact that lack of development in the infrastructure ground and lack of medical benefits have become crucial for the cognitive, social and mental development of the children belonging to the place (Infanti et a;. 2015). It is also to mention in this context that, the consistent rate of domestic poverty has escalated disadvantages for the children of the estate sector and at the same time has reduced future opportunities for them. There are still need of studies, which will depict the true scene of the welfare of the children and their health in the estate area of Sri Lanka.


Hence, aim of the following paper is to prepare a research proposal and the considered topic is the unfortunate impact of poverty on the health as well as wellbeing of the children in the estate or tea state of Sri Lanka. Therefore, the paper will propose a convenient yet fruitful research methodology as well as an expected research outcome.

Literature review

Present socio-economic condition of the tea estate of Sri Lanka

The tea estate of Sri Lanka is being deprived for a long time and according to (), the residents of the premise believe that the condition of the overall condition have deteriorated more over the last fifteen years. Unfortunately, such stagnation has not been experienced by any of the communities of the rubber sector in Sri Lanka (Kumanayake et al. 2014). It is true that a small and probably ignorable percentage of poor lives live in the estate sector of Sri Lanka, unfortunately highest amount of incidence of “intra-sector” poverty have been found in the tea state of Sri Lanka. Presently, it is being claimed by the government that general improvements in terms of varied aspects like health, education as well as housing have been achieved by the estate sector of Sri Lanka (Kurihara 2014). The claim cannot be ignored as per the reason that the long due citizenship rights have been finally given to the estate community though unfortunately ID cards as well as other basic documents are not accomplishing the demand.

Nevertheless, the health sector and the health of the children in the particular premise is improvising for the last couple of years as per the reason, both the CBR (Crude birth rate) as well as CDR (Crude death rate) have steadily declined (Liyanaarachchi et al. 2016). At the same time, steady decline in the infant mortality rates in the region is also visible. The rate of infant mortality has declined from 38.6% to directly 14.2% (M?nnikk?-Barbutiu et al. 2016). However, it is disappointing that the child-education rate in the tea estate is still far behind from the education rates in the other states of the nation. As per 2004’s estimation, the literacy rate of male and female children in the estate region have been 88.3% and 74.7% respectively, while the percentage of the same is 95.9% and 93.8% in the urban place respectively (M?nnikk?-Barbutiu et al. 2016). On the other hand, as per the housing, recently the government of Sri Lanka started varied housing programs like “re-roofing program”, program of roofing as well as upgrading, building new individual houses and two storey houses. However, as per varied studies, the occupation of each of the single unit houses in the estate sector is low and it is perceived that the low occupation level of the estate is consistently hindering the success of the housing plans made by the government.

Situation of the children of the estate sector

From the report of Child Survey of 2016 by the department of Census and Statistics, the rate of working children belonging to the estate region is more than 2,321 (Qiao et al. 2016). However, the number is a signal of fortune for the estate region, as per the reason, that the number of working children is far higher in the rural and urban places of Sri Lanka. However, the aforementioned number may sound fortunate apparently, though it has been identified that a large number of children belonging to the descendent families of the South Indian labors are presently employed in the tea plantation. Therefore, illiteracy and health issues as well as accidents while working have become a consistent matter for the estate region. Most importantly, as per the “Socio-economic survey” report, more than 45% of the inhabitants belonging to the descendent families of the Tamil families are found to have no opportunity for schooling till now (Simpson 2014).

On the other side, due to lack of maternity facilities and proper nutrients, infancy death rate has been stagnant in the tea estate region. Moreover, till now chronic diseases like Pneumonia, Bronchitis and Diarrhea are till now common in the place (Wickramasinghe 2015). It is unfortunate to denote that the percentage of children with a health card is low in the tea estate sector of Sri Lanka. Along with the health and social condition, the situation regarding the cognitive development is low in the tea estates of Sri Lanka. According to the current status, the rate of mentality disable children is high in urban, rural and the tea state of Sri Lanka (Wijetunga and Sung 2015).

Aims and objectives

The aim of the research paper will be to identify the harmful impacts of poverty on the health as well as wellbeing of the children in the tea states or estate sector in Sri Lanka. Therefore, following the aforementioned aim and the considered problem statement, the objects, which the research project is expected to accomplish, are the following –

  • To identify the evil factors, which restrict the children of the tea estate of Sri Lanka from accessing a proper health
  • To identify the current economic and social condition of the tea state or estate sector of Sri Lanka
  • To identify the partial answers to resolve the health issues, which chiefly minimize the child development
  • To identify the strategies, which can be taken to recover the condition of the health and social welfare of the children of the tea estate

Methodology

Research philosophy, design and approach

In order to pursue the study in a systematic and fruitful way, there is the need of a proper set of methodology, which should be proposed in the present premise. First of all, the research should follow the philosophy of realism as per the reason; the research project only requires concentrating on the practical experiences and incidents, which have taken place in the tea state of Sri Lanka. Unlike the other research philosophy, the philosophy of realism claims that whatever is worth believing approximates the reality. The philosophy of realism will be accompanied by a deductive research approach as per the reason; the paper is going to extract the consequences of poverty on the health and wellbeing of the children in the tea state of Sri Lanka. Moreover, the aforementioned research philosophy and research approach will be followed by a descriptive research design. Considering the research aim and objective, it is understandable that without the help of descriptive research design the research paper can successfully evaluate the issues of poverty and its consequences in a detailed manner. Moreover, with the help of descriptive research design, the paper can successfully pursue observation and survey, which will be necessary for acquiring relevant data for the project.

Data collection and analysis

Considering the aim and objectives of the above-presented proposal, it is understandable that the grandeur of the issue is wide and thus, only primary data collection procedures will not be enough for the research project to rely solely on the primary research methods. The context needs to apply the following procedure

Data collection from archives and existing survey paper

In order to collect relevant and an adequate amount of data, the research project would highly rely on the existing archives Sri Lanka and their information. In that case, the research paper will collect data from existing survey papers as well as from the online news article regarding child poverty and its impact on the estate region. Moreover, the inclusive criteria of the online newspaper articles will be that online newspaper articles will allowed from present and 10 years earlier publication.

Data collection through primary research

Following the need to collect personal experiences and perceptions of the individuals residing in the tea estate of Sri Lanka, the research project will pursue a quantitative survey research among twenty families living in the estate region.

Sampling and collection instrument

The secondary data will be gathered from the archives, survey paper as well as from the online newspapers. For the primary data, an on-field data collection method or survey will be applied on the estate sector of Sri Lanka and questions on number of children, literacy level and health conditions along with employment and earning condition will be asked.

Expected outcome

If the research project will accurately accomplish the above-mentioned methodology, then it is expected that an in-depth knowledge regarding the following aspects will be positively acquired –

Reasons of current poverty in the tea states

Impact of the poverty on the children health of the tea states

Number of children drop outs from schools of the tea states

Impact of current poverty on the cognitive and social development of children of the tea states

Work plan/time table

For accomplishing the aforementioned methodology, the following schedule will be followed –

Activities

1st to 3rd Week

4th to 10th week

11th to 13th Week

14th to 17th Week

18th to 21st Week

22nd to 23rd Week

24th Week

Selection of the topic

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Data collection from secondary sources

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Creating layout

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Literature review

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Analysis and interpretation of collected data

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Findings of the data

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Conclusion of the study

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Formation of draft

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Submission of final work

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References

Athukorala, P.C. and Jayasuriya, S., 2013. Economic policy shifts in Sri Lanka: the post-conflict development challenge. Asian Economic Papers, 12(2), pp.1-28.

Aturupane, H., Glewwe, P. and Wisniewski, S., 2013. The impact of school quality, socioeconomic factors, and child health on students’ academic performance: evidence from Sri Lankan primary schools. Education Economics, 21(1), pp.2-37.

Deckard, S., 2015. “The Land Was Wounded”: War Ecologies, Commodity Frontiers, and Sri Lankan Literature. Ecocriticism of the Global South, p.35.

Galgamuwa, L.S., Iddawela, D., Dharmaratne, S.D. and Galgamuwa, G.L.S., 2017. Nutritional status and correlated socio-economic factors among preschool and school children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka. BMC public health, 17(1), p.377.

Ilyas, A.H., 2014. Estate Tamils of Sri Lanka–a socio economic review. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 6(6), pp.184-191.

Infanti, J.J., Lund, R., Muzrif, M.M., Schei, B., Wijewardena, K. and ADVANCE study team, 2015. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives. Social Science & Medicine, 145, pp.35-43.

Kumanayake, N.S., Estudillo, J.P. and Otsuka, K., 2014. Changing sources of household income, poverty, and sectoral inequality in Sri Lanka, 1990–2006. The Developing Economies, 52(1), pp.26-51.

Kurihara, S., 2014. Citizen for Labor–Policy and practice for structural poverty over Estate Tamils in the tea plantation community of Sri Lanka. Hatton, Sri Lanka: Upcountry Research and Documentation Center.

Liyanaarachchi, T.S., Naranpanawa, A. and Bandara, J.S., 2016. Impact of trade liberalisation on labour market and poverty in Sri Lanka. An integrated macro-micro modelling approach. Economic Modelling, 59, pp.102-115.

M?nnikk?-Barbutiu, S., Westin, T., Peiris, R. and Mozelius, P., 2016, September. Telecenters for the Future in Tea Estates of Sri Lanka. In IFIP World Information Technology Forum (pp. 121-131). Springer International Publishing.

Qiao, Y., Halberg, N., Vaheesan, S. and Scott, S., 2016. Assessing the social and economic benefits of organic and fair trade tea production for small-scale farmers in Asia: a comparative case study of China and Sri Lanka. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 31(03), pp.246-257.

Simpson, E.S., 2014. The developing world: an introduction. Routledge.

Wickramasinghe, N., 2015. Sri Lanka in the modern age: a history. Oxford University Press.

Wijetunga, C.S. and Sung, J.S., 2015. Valuing the cultural landscapes past and present: Tea plantations in Sri Lanka. Landscape Research, 40(6), pp.668-683.

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