Discuss the Boiling point with the structural factors of the chemical compounds.
Boiling point is actually the temperature point at which the vapour pressure of the liquid will become equal to the pressure surrounding the liquid. This is at this temperature, the liquid will change its phase to the vapour. At microscopic level at BP the intermolecular bonds will break and the vapour phase changes do occur. Hence higher the bond energies, higher BPs will be required to break the bonds and for changes the phase from liquid to vapour.
In the current scenario the two chemical compounds selected for the study are both organic compounds. One of the two is 3-methly-2 butanone and the second compound in the list is 1-pentanol. The boiling point of the first element 3-methyl-2 butanone is about 940C to 950C and the boiling point of the second compound 1-pentanol is around 1370C. Intermolecular forces in the chemical compounds do directly depend on the type of the bonds present in the chemical compound and they will immediately impact the extent of the forces needed for breaking the chemical bonds. Hence in this connection it can be said that the boiling point of the compounds will be higher for the compounds requiring higher forces to break the bonds and the boiling point of the chemical compounds will be lower for those compounds which require lesser bond breaking forces. In this connection the relative differences of the boiling points of the two chemical compounds is explained in the following discussion. The BP of the 1-pentanol is higher than the BP of the 3-methyl-2 butanone and the reason for the same can be explained due to the chemical bonds present in the respective chemical compounds. 1- Pentanol mainly consist of the hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding is responsible for the strength of the 1-pentanol. 3-Methyl- 2 butanone chemical compounds intermolecular bonding is distinct from that of the 1-Pentanol. In this chemical compound there is presence of the methyl groups and the presence of the same will result in the change in the carbon backbone bonds. There will be four carbon backbone with a single carbon branch on the third carbon atom. And so this will result in the decrease in the intermolecular dipole-dipole bonds, so this feature will result in the lower Boiling point of the compound. Hydrogen bond of the 1-pentanol is stronger and hence is responsible for the higher boiling point of the compound when compared with the 3-methyl-2 butanone chemical compound (PubChem).
The above figures provides the details and the arrangement of the chemical bonds present in the molecule and they in turn explains the strength and the boiling point of the chemicals.
Chemical compound details
Molecular weight of 3-Methyl-2-butanone = 86.13gm/mol
Molecular weight of Pentanol =88.15g/mol
Etter, M.C., 1991. Hydrogen bonds as design elements in organic chemistry. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 95(12), pp.4601-4610.
Giese, B. and Baldwin, J.E., 1986. Radicals in organic synthesis: formation of carbon-carbon bonds (p. 141). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Anon., n.d. [Online]
Anon., n.d. [Online]