Discussion On Infectious Diseases Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Infectious Diseases.

Answer:

Influenza

Africa

Nigeria and South Africa have a high prevalence, with an incident rate of 234 and 158 per 100000 cases respectively.

America

Bezile and Jamaica are the high prevalent countries with a rate of 68 and 584 per 10000 cases.

South East Asia

Singapore and Malaysia have been estimated to have high respiratory tract infection related to influenza.

Europe

UK has a high prevalence rate, though less than other regions, the average of 600 people a year die from complications of flu.

East Mediterranean

Yemen and Afghanistan have highest incident rate with 352 and 98 per 100000 cases.

West pacific

Thailand and Philippines (incidence rate 90 per 100000) has contentious high prevalence.

Measles

Africa

West Africa has reported significant number of measles cases every year. South Africa also has a high prevalence rate. The outbreak in Nigeria killed over 40 children.

America

The US experienced 667 cases of measles in 2014. Another large outbreak was noted in Canada during 2011, with 776 cases reported.

South East Asia

Pakistan reported increasing cases of the disease, claiming hundreds of lives.

Europe

Ukraine reported 13517 cases in 2012 and 2015, more than 1700 cases in Germany have been reported. France and Portugal have also reported high prevalence.

East Mediterranean

High incidence found in Pakistan and Somalia during 2010 to 2012 period with 16,753 cases and 27,281 cases respectively.

West pacific

In 2014, Philippines reported a large outbreak with 21403 confirmed cases.

Meningitis

Africa

In 2017, Nigeria reported 1407 total cases, with 211 deaths.

America

In US meningitis affects approx 4000 people per year.

South East Asia

The highest incident has been found in Thailand with 24.6 per 100000 people.

Europe

Among European countries, in 2012, the rate of meningitis is high in Lithuania, followed by UK.

East Mediterranean

Egypt has a high prevalence of meningitis.

West pacific

The incident rate in Fiji was 9.9 per 100000 under five years old, with 36 % mortality.

Pertussis

America

In 2014, US reported 32000 cases of pertussis.

South East Asia

Thailand has shown a significantly high prevalence of pertussis cases.

Europe

Norway had the highest prevalence of 59.4 cases per 100000 people. Germany reported 12339 cases in 2014, especially in infants and children.

East Mediterranean

Among Pakistani infants, the rate of the disease was 3.96 per 1000 infants, showing significant prevalence.

West pacific

In Papua New Guinea, a large outbreak was reported in 2011, with 70000 clinically suspected cases reported.

Gastro infections

Africa

Ghana and Nigeria have the highest prevalence among other countries.

America

60 to 70 million people are affected by gastro infections in the US, per year.

South East Asia

India and China are most prevalent in tropical gastro infections.

Europe

In UK, gastro infections affect 1 in 5 people every year.

East Mediterranean

Pakistan and Afghanistan showed the significant prevalence of gastro infections in school children.

West pacific

The Philippines have a high prevalence rate of gastro infections.

Malaria

Africa

Uganda and Ghana reported having high rate with 10.3 million and 8.8 million cases in 2000- 2015.

America

In the US, malaria rate was 1925 reported in 2011.

South East Asia

70 % malaria cases in this region are from India, with fatal consequences.

Europe

Europe has made malaria free in 2015.

East Mediterranean

Pakistan has a rate of 4.3millions cases reported in 2000-2015.

Dengue

Africa

During 2013-14, a large outbreak has been reported in Kenyan coast during 2013-14 periods, with 352 cases in Mombasa only. In addition, Angola is another country, which has been reported in 2013.

America

U.S. and Caribbean have been showing high dengue incidents since past two decades. In Caribbean, the severe dengue cases, DHF has been fund high.

South East Asia

Thailand has been showing a high prevalence of dengue, since 1978. Its capital Bangkok has reported more than 8000 cases in 2016. In Malaysia also, dengue deaths have tripled within the period of 2012-13.

Europe

A large outbreak has been reported with more than 2100 cases in 2012, in Portugal. Among European countries, Spain is also having a high prevalence of dengue.

East Mediterranean

During 2015-16 periods, high prevalence has been reported in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Although Pakistan reports significant numbers of dengue cases constantly, the other two countries are increasing the rate.

West pacific

In the period of 2010-2012, more than 1000 cases were reported from Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore, indicating these most prevalent countries.

Zika virus

Africa

Cape Verde reported more than 1000 reported cases in 2015. Nigeria has been reported to be the high-risk zone for Zika infection, due to lack of resources.

America

Brazil witnessed the rapid spread of Zika outbreak in May 2015. It was 170000 cases during mid-2016 in South American countries.

South East Asia

Thailand has been hit worst during the 2012-14 period. Singapore and Thailand have been affected most after 2016 outbreak of Zika in Southeast Asia.

Europe

During 2016, France has the highest incidence, with 1133 cases, followed by Spain with 294 cases and UK with 179 cases.

East Mediterranean

Pakistan, Lebanon and Egypt have high risk of Zika outbreak, due to high prevalence mosquito-borne other diseases.

West pacific

Thailand is the country with highest Zika prevalence among South East Asia, followed by the Philippines, Vietnam and Indonesia.

Chikungunya

Africa

During the current year, 177 cases were reported, of which 53 were from Somalia and rest were from Mandera, indicating high prevalence.

America

In 2015, US had the highest prevalence of the disease with 896 total cases reported. In addition, Colombia also has issued alerted for expanding epidemic.

South East Asia

India and Malaysia are the countries with high chikungunya prevalence along with dengue, as the vectors are same.

Europe

In 2014, the highest number of cases reported in France, i.e. 550, followed by UK with 301 cases.

East Mediterranean

During 2011 outbreak, Yemen had an outbreak of chikungunya. However, others regions have not been reported such outbreak.

West pacific

Papua New Guinea reported an outbreak in 2012 along with an outbreak in Indonesia in 2012 to 2014 period.

Bibliography

Datta, S. S., Toikilik, S., Ropa, B., Chidlow, G., & Lagani, W. (2012). Pertussis outbreak in Papua New Guinea: the challenges of response in a remote geo-topographical setting. Western Pacific surveillance and response journal: WPSAR, 3(4), 3.

Roth, A., Mercier, A., Lepers, C., Hoy, D., Duituturaga, S., Benyon, E., … Souar?s, Y. (2014). Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections – An unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012–2014. Eurosurveillance, 19(41).

WHO. (2014). Projections of mortality and burden of disease, 2004-2030. WHO.

WHO. (2016). Burden of disease?: DALYs. The Global Burden of Disease: 2016 Update, 40–51.

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