Diploma In Nursing: Pathophysiology Of Multiple Sclerosis Essay


Discuss about the Diploma in Nursing for Pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis.


The function of the nervous system

The nervous system consists of all the body nerve cells. It has two parts namely the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. This is the most highly organized and complex body system (Masliah, 2017). Its main function is to collect information delivered by the sensory organs via nerves, transfers the information thru the spinal code, and then processes the information in the brain. The nervous system gives direction the reactions of our body to the world as well as controlling most of the internal functions of our body, everything from blood vessel dilation and muscle movement to the learning of physical facts and anatomy are being control by the nervous system. The nervous system manages all these functions by sending electrical, chemical and quick signal, between cells (Schafer & Stevens, 2015).

Pathophysiology of (MS) Multiple Sclerosis.

MS is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) affecting myelinated axons that are located in the CNS, destroying the axon and the myelin in variable degrees as well as generating significant physical disability for a period of 20 to 25 years. The hallmark of multiple sclerosis episodes that happen years or months apart and it affect the locations of different anatomic.

The impact of MS on the nervous system

MS attack the (CNS) central nervous system causing lesions or scarring. Multiple Sclerosis causes damage or scarring to the myelin sheath located in the spinal cord or affects the brain by causing lesions or scarring.

Functions of our musculoskeletal system

The Musculoskeletal system involves the combination of the skeletal and muscular system working as a group and includes the muscles, bones, ligaments, and tendons of the body. It assists our bodies with the protection of internal organs, shape, and ability to move. The body parts offer a framework for our body by allowing movements, as well as dictating our degree of flexibility.

How the musculoskeletal system affect in individuals with MS

The Musculoskeletal system of individuals who have MS will not function well because the disease will weaken and causes damage to both the skeletal and muscular system that works as a group. It will prevent the musculoskeletal system from protecting internal organs of the body.

Discuss the signs and symptoms of Daisy and link to the pathophysiology of MS

Signs and symptoms of Daisy include; she runs down physically and feeling stressed. After the test, the Doctor found scarring and multiple lesions on her Spinal cord. Daisy signs and symptoms were linked to MS because it causes damage and scarring to the myelin sheath which is located in the Spinal cord.

Functions of the integumentary system.

The integumentary system is made up of the nails, skin, glands, nerves, and hair. It protects the body especially the internal organs from the outside or environmental insults (e.g., temperature fluctuations, physical trauma, chemical agents, and infections). It also helps in retaining body fluids, and protects against disease, regulates the temperature of the body, and removes waste products (Rizzo, 2015).

Explain conditions of Eczema and Psoriasis and there effect on the integumentary system and its function.

Eczema is a situation where the skin patches become itchy, inflamed, red, rough, and cracked while Psoriasis is a condition of the Skin that increases the life cycle of the cells that are in the skin. Psoriasis is one of the chronic diseases, and it mostly appears and disappears.

Psoriasis and Eczema are the conditions that affect the skin. They make the skin to form a red rash. Both Eczema and Psoriasis are the inflammatory skin diseases. They are capable of causing damage to the integumentary system such as the skin. Eczema and Psoriasis can make the skin elbows, neck, scalp and knees thereby preventing the integumentary from performing its function of protecting the internal organ of the body.

Signs and symptoms of the Eczema include red skin, flaky skin, itchy skin and scaly skin. Common signs and symptoms of the Psoriasis include Stiff and swollen joints, itching, soreness or burning and Red patches of skin.

Two common treatments for Psoriasis and eczema

The treatment for eczema patients involves emollient therapies with occlusion dressing and topical steroids. Eczema can also be treated by use of Antibiotic. This is being used in case there are skin infections (Wallenberg, 2016).

The treatment of Psoriasis will require the prescription of emollient therapy (moisturizers and soap substitutes) including topical steroids as well as Vitamin D (Armstrong, Bagel, Van, Robertson & Yamauchi, 2015).

Immediate actions that I will take based on the assessment of Daisy

The immediate action that I will take after the assessment is to seek for the treatment and medical advice from the Doctor. I will also participate in patient engagement to learn more about the diet as this will enable me to prevent the diseases from spreading to all parts of the body.

Health professionals that will be included in Daisy’s care and their roles

Dieticians- they provide guidance on how the patients on the healthy diet.

A Physical therapist- they help in creating an exercise program that improves the balance, strength, and coordination.

Nursing professional- thy mostly have advanced training and can, therefore, help in the management of symptoms and counseling.

Case study 2

1) Outline the main structure of the cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system is made up of the blood vessel, heart, and blood. The Heart helps in pumping blood to all parts of the cardiovascular system. Blood vessels include veins, arteries, and capillaries. Blood is the fluids that are being transported in the circulatory system (Ikeda et.al, 2015).

2) A function of the cardiovascular system

The composition of the cardiovascular system includes blood vessel, blood, and the heart help in transporting vital nutrients to all parts of the body and in removing metabolic waste. They also regulate the temperature of our body and protect the body. It also protects the body from antibodies and white blood cells. They also defend the human body against foreign toxins and microbes (Yang et.al, 2017).

3) Briefly explain how a change in age affects the cardiovascular system

Age decreases the ability of an individual to sustain a higher level of exercise for a longer period. In explain how age affects the cardiovascular system; the focus will be on the heart. When age increases, the structure of the heart becomes rigid. The left ventricle muscles get thicker, the heart increases slightly, the volume of the left ventricle decline. This causes the rate of the heart to declines. Age also changes the autonomous nervous system. Therefore, the age of an individual affects the functioning of the cardiovascular system (Di-Benedetto, M?ller, Wenger, D?zel & Pawelec, 2017).

4) The pathophysiology of angina, including risk factors, signs and symptoms

Pathophysiology of Angina- Angina is commonly being triggered by myocardial ischemia which occurs due to the mismatch between oxygen demand and myocardial blood flow. Pathophysiology of angina starts when the heart muscle receives inadequate blood flow. This causes a crushing or burning pain to the chest, and most of the time those with the disease will feel like they are suffocating and experiences difficulty in breathing in. It also causes blockage of the coronary artery (An & Gossman, 2018).

Signs and symptoms

Angina is described as pressure, squeezing, heaviness, pain in the chest and tightness.

The main symptom of Angina is chest pain. Other symptoms of the Angina include Nausea, Dizziness, Fatigue, and sweating.

The risk factors for Angina include the following: Smoking, High blood pressure, High cholesterol, lack of enough physical activity and Diabetes.

5) The reason why john’s chest pain occurs on exertion and disappears at rest

Johns has a certain type of Angina known as Stable Angina. This type of Angina happens mainly during a period of physical exertion and reduces at rest.

6) The pathophysiology of anemia

Anemia is the condition in which an individual has the inadequate number of healthy red blood cell. The disease mainly occurs due to loss of blood that reduces the production of red blood cell (Zadrazil & Horak, 2015).

Signs and symptoms- the mild state may pass without causing symptoms. The symptoms of this stage include dyspnea, palpitations, and mild fatigues. In moderate Anemia, people experience the symptoms while resting. The other signs and symptoms include irregular heartbeat, chest pain, shortness of breath, yellowish or pale skin, Dizziness, and weakness.

Risk factors include pregnancy, intestinal disorders, family history, chronic conditions, and menstruation.

7) The reason why John feels dizzy, tired and short of breath.

John has the inadequate number of Red blood cell that causes Anemia hence making him feel dizzy, tired and short of breath.

8) Definition of hemoglobin and the normal level of the male adult

Hemoglobin is a red protein that performs the duty of oxygen transportation in the body. The normal level of hemoglobin in an adult male is 13.8 to 17.2g/dl

9) Two nursing assessment that I will conduct to John

I will analyze the multivariate using clinical information and data from the laboratory tests and blood smear. I will also perform the physical examination of the Bone Tenderness, Hepatomegaly, and Neuropathy.

I will advise John to stop smoking as this may increase the intensity of the disease. I will encourage him to attend to physical activities to reduce stress. Lastly, I will advise John to improve his diet.

10 Health professionals that may involve in John’s care and their functions

Physiotherapists- They helps individuals affected by illness, injury, education, and advice

Psychologists- are the health professionals who provide support to John in the setting of the Palliative care.

Hematologists- They diagnosed as well as treating diseases that are related to the blood system.


An, J., & Gossman, W. G. (2018). Ludwig Angina.

Armstrong, A. W., Bagel, J., Van Voorhees, A. S., Robertson, A. D., & Yamauchi, P. S. (2015). Combining biologic therapies with other systemic treatments in psoriasis: evidence-based, best-practice recommendations from the Medical Board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. JAMA dermatology, 151(4), 432-438.

Di­-Benedetto, S., M?ller, L., Wenger, E., D?zel, S., & Pawelec, G. (2017). Contribution of neuroinflammation and immunity to brain aging and the mitigating effects of physical and cognitive interventions. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 75, 114-128.

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Yang, P., Kuc, R. E., Buonincontri, G., Southwood, M., Torella, R., Upton, P. D., ... & Morrell, N. W. (2017). Elabela/Toddler Is an Endogenous Agonist of the Apelin APJ Receptor in the Adult Cardiovascular System, and Exogenous Administration of the Peptide Compensates for the Downregulation of Its Expression in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionClinical Perspective. Circulation, 135(12), 1160-1173.

Zadrazil, J., & Horak, P. (2015). Pathophysiology of anemia in chronic kidney diseases: A review. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub, 159(2), 197-202.

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