Q1. Positive School versus the Classical School Approach
Positive school approach aims at instilling discipline in students by teaching the importance of being disciplined rather than punishing bad behavior. As a result, the approach helps students thrive on success and any institution that opts to apply this approach promotes good behavior among the students while discouraging bad behavior (Kim & Ahn, 2017). The approach is comprehensive and plays down punitive measures such as suspension and expulsion as a factor that undermines success for each student. The founding father of this particular school of thought is Martin Seligman, who was elected as the president of American Psychological Association (APA). The psychologist grew old promoting the field of positive psychology. The positive school discipline is characterized by integrated formalities, practices, programs and policies that must be incorporated into the school system. Additionally, the community, in general, should be supportive in a bid to make the theory a success.
On the other hand, the classical school of thought that was developed during the industrial revolution. It focuses on teaching children basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic, which are important. During that time, there was a need to adopt new ways of doing various tasks in the industries that were growing. The school of thought believes in teaching students how to learn and increase their thinking abilities. The major founding fathers of the classical school of thought include Henry Gant, Frederick Taylor, Lilian Gilbreth and Frank. Unlike positive school approach, classical approach asserts that children learn in stages regardless of the style that is being used in schools. The classical school of thought is characterized by three distinct stages of learning, which include grammar, logic and rhetoric. Additionally, the approach is featured by teachers who take learners through the three stages of learning.
Q2. Deterrence Theory
Deterrence theory is widely applicable as it helps states to enhance various security measures. The concept of deterrence refers to the application of threats by a particular party to persuade another party to refrain from action against them. In such a case, the threat given to the other country will serve as a deterrent, which makes the said country drop the plans against carrying out the cause of action (Quackenbush, 2010). A deterrent policy in international security refers to the warning that leaders in a particular country can send to their opponents convincing them to avoid using military force in their pursuit of international objectives.
Two broad concepts are incorporated in the deterrence policy. They include direct and extended deterrence. Direct deterrence is a threat that is given directly in a bid to prevent an attack against the state’s own territories. On the other hand, extended deterrence refers to a threat that is in defense of another country’s boundaries. For instance, some situations arise between a country and its neighbors. Such circumstances call for direct deterrence as there is a need to protect their state. The US and other international countries might not necessarily intervene. When the matter attracts international attention it can become an extended deterrent.
Notably, the theory of deterrence is a concept that is applied in military grounds in a more often basis. In crime, the deterrence concept is used to reduce the possible happening of crime. Moreover, different states are using it to prevent the use of nuclear weapons against their states. This has been achieved through promises of reciprocation in case a country violates the Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) agreement among the states. Additionally, law enforcement authorities use the theory to make ordinary people stop committing a crime.
Q3. Self-Control Theory
It is a criminological concept that features lack of self-control behind criminal behavior in most societies. The theory asserts that poor parenting for a child below the age of ten risks their ability to control themselves as compared to children of the same age group with better parenting. Studies indicate that there is a great correlation between criminal behavior, being impulsive and low levels of self-control (Kelley, Tamarelli & Greenberg, 2018). Additionally, the self-control theory has some fact in it in the sense that, there are circumstances that can be avoided if self-control dominates in oneself. According to the theory, self-control is an important virtue that one should have as it can help control impulsive behavior.
Criminal justice is a field that applies mini-theories in explaining various crimes that happen in the society. However, use of such theories has advantages attached to the system. The first advantage is that they help to explain and understand why criminals behave in a particular way. Examples of such mini-theories that explain crime include social learning theory, rational choice theory and social control theory among others. The theories play a key role in helping understand the occurrence of specific acts of crime. Additionally, the theories can help criminals reform as they can be advised to avoid any enticing incidences.
Disadvantages of using mini-theories to explain crime include unreliability on the explanations as no evidence supports the claims. Moreover, the theories are psychological and overreliance in them to make a decision can be a wrongful appeal. Wrong assumptions can be drawn as other circumstances can be coincidental in one way or the other. Occurrences as such can lead to a conviction, which is not supposed to have taken place. As much as the theories are helpful, they can pose a threat of possible judgmental errors, which can lead to the conviction of an individual.