Leadership is a process in which the employees are influenced by the leaders towards achieving overall goals and objectives of the organization. It is the capability of a supervisor to encourage the subordinates to conduct the activities with confidence and dedication towards the activities assigned to them. In this paper, the first phase will discuss whether the leadership can be taught or learned by analyzing the different approaches to leadership (Johnston & Marshall, 2016). Are leaders born or made? This statement has always dominated and now also dominates the study of leadership. In the next phase, different theories will be discussed and the last phase will be related to the conclusion.
It is important for the leader to direct their employees so that success can be achieved. In a recent scenario, it is seen that if anyone wants to achieve success in any field it is important to have skills which can offer a chance to be a leader. It helps an individual to climb up the organization ladder. Leadership can be measured as the asset which should be there in a leader to become successful.
According to Theo Haimann "Leadership is the process in which the supervisor's guides and influence the work of the others so that goals and objectives can be achieved"(Alvesson & Sveningsson, 2015). Leadership is an influential process in which leader helps to regulate, control and change the behavior and performance of the overall team. It is essential for the employees to follow the instructions given by the leaders so that activities can be conducted smoothly. It is important for the leader to maintain proper relation with the employees so that it can be easy to work according to the given direction by the leader. It is analyzed that in a group, a leader has various power by virtue of which he is on the top level and also influences the behavior of the team members (Neatby, Rioux & Aub?, 2015).
A leader has the knowledge and information about the activities and also has a formal authority to manage the activities of the organization. Management takes into consideration effective and efficient way to attain overall organizational objectives through planning, organizing, staffing and controlling the organizational resources. Leadership can be presented as a process which influences the thoughts, attitude, and behavior so that goals and objectives can be attained of the organization. It is seen that leadership can enhance the confidence and train the employees to enhance the overall output by creating trust and good atmosphere which helps to feel safe for their jobs.
It is seen that leaders improve their leadership abilities through the life learning experiences and also through training and coaching. Some individuals seen that leaders are born naturally by having intelligence and visionary. It is often said that "leaders are born to lead" but it not only means that leaders are born only, but not made as to be a good leader it is important to be a follower as it is seen that true leaders do not walk in the front, they only follow the rest.
In the present scenario, many corporations consider that if there is no leadership in management then it is known as an ineffective activity. If there is no leadership then it is difficult to manage the resources of the organization. It is also analyzed that without leadership the activities are conducted slowly and which may result in a loss of the business. A Leader is a person who is trustworthy, confident and fulfills all the responsibilities made and manages the work seriously. It is seen that different people have a different attitude so it is important to manage them accordingly.
Therefore, leadership is an important skill so that other people do right things. It is seen that it is a challenging task for many organizations to select a better leader. So, if the organizations have the right team with the inspired employees and good leadership abilities then it can be easy to enhance the overall reputation and productivity of the company (Donate & de Pablo, 2015). There are some researchers who stated that leadership as a personal perspective like as a trait or behavior whereas many think that leadership is an information processing perspective. Therefore, in this paper study will be made that whether leaders are born or made?
Are leaders born?
In the recent scenario, there are various self-made leaders who are popular in the organization. It has become a debatable topic whether they become top by born or experience achieved. To support this argument trait theory can be taken into consideration. The trait theory of leadership is an assumption in which the leaders are born and due to this factor, the leaders who possess the qualities and traits are better suited to leadership. This theory focuses on the concept that many leaders are successful and unsuccessful and it is used to predict the effectiveness of the leadership. Common leadership traits of Trait theory are energy, creativity, flexibility and knowledge of the activities. This theory often elaborates the behavioral characteristics that are common in the leaders. In this theory, it is explained that traits are the personal characteristics a leader should have like: confidence and trustworthiness. It states that trait theory focuses on “leaders are born". The advantage of this theory is that it is one of the natural pleasing theories and is valid. It helps to provide knowledge and understanding of the leader element in the process of leadership. Trait theory helps to provide constructive information about the leadership and also it can be implemented by people who are conducting their routine activities.
Managers can use the information by taking into consideration this theory to analyze their position in the company and to evaluate how their position can be made stronger in the company. They can also have good knowledge of their identity and the way they will impact others in the company. By this theory the managers are aware of their strength and weaknesses and also they can understand that how they can create leadership qualities. So, this is one of the questionable statements to analyze that whether people are born as a leader. There are five aspects of emotional intelligence like self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, empathy and social skills. This concept is also related to the trait theory (Komives, 2016). It is seen that traits are essential in the development and deployment of the individual skills. Many individuals stated that leadership is born by taking into consideration some characters like artists and players. Therefore, it is analyzed that leadership is actually not born.
There are various examples related to this argument like: Tiger woods who is golf champion. He is born with good capability to play sports. His father worked with efficiency from his early ages to make him a golf champion. Next example is of Mozart, the musician. He was also born with the skills related to music. His father wanted to make him a good musician from his childhood. He made the efforts to train him by considering various music instruments. By analyzing the examples it is seen that their natural talent and qualities are enhanced through hard work of many years. The improvement is made by their parents and also by the influencing ability. According to Northouse (2009)," leadership is a process in which a person influences a group of individuals to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization". This definition states that leadership is a process which states that it is not a trait or leadership characteristic but it is a relation between leader and the followers. Also it shows that leadership is not a linear event but it is a communicating event. So, it states that leadership style can be improved by practice and continuous training (Goleman, 2017).
Leaders are made
A successful organization needs a good leader so that the organization can achieve success in the market. To achieve this it is important for a leader to have good qualities. Some states that good leaders are made not born. If any individual needs to be a good leader then it is important to improve the leadership abilities such as goals and values. Bateman & Snell (2009), states that a leader who emphasizes on affecting the company towards achieving goals can minimize the barriers by enhancing the motivation level of the employees. So, leaders should motivate others and create a cooperative environment so that activities can be conducted smoothly. It is important for the leaders to make friends rather than enemies. It is important for the leaders to create a friendly approach so that success can be achieved (Cameron, Quinn, DeGraff, & Thakor, 2014). It is important for a leader to create friendly approach so that success can be achieved. In order to be a good leader, it is important to provide good training so that success can be achieved. A leader should create positive thinking so that better training can be offered to the employees. So, it is seen that one's own skills and traits are not sufficient to become a good leader.
In a recent scenario, the most common phrase is "he is born to be a leader". It states that traits perspective takes a major portion of the leadership. It states that a specific person may have qualities that are inborn that can assist them to be a good leader. But training is one of the important factors that help to enhance the overall skill and knowledge (Hartnell, Kinicki, Lambert, Fugate & Doyle Corner, 2016). So, training is important to be a good leader.
Trait leadership states that individuals who have exceptional and inborn talent can be a good leader. Some traits are related to intelligence and height. But process concept states that leadership is an interaction between the followers and leaders. It is said that leaders require followers and also followers require leaders so that communication can be done properly and relation can be maintained effectively. Northouse (2009) suggests that leadership can also be related to the two aspects of theory X and Theory Y. Theory X focuses on the workers who are shy and want assessment by the leaders. While theory Y takes into consideration the responsibility and of some people so that organizational goals can be achieved. Also by taking into consideration theory Y, it is seen that employees are motivated (Jaques, 2017). The managerial grid is also one of the aspects of leadership in which there are various aspects of behavior related to leadership are elaborated like production and worry of an individual. Production factor is related to the task-oriented behavior like managing work and also clarifying the roles. Next factor is related to the concern for people in which the focus is given on creating trust and friendly atmosphere. As this is more related to the individual as it helps to enhance the motivation level of the employees so that vision and strategies can be achieved by the company (Fairhurst & Connaughton, 2014).
Next theory is related to a behavioral theory in which it is seen that individuals can become a good leader through the process of teaching, learning, and innovation. It is related to a set of skills that can be learned with proper training and learning (Eisner, 2016). Leadership learning is a lifetime activity in which the leaders learn new ways to manage and direct the employees of the organization. Good leaders seek out development opportunities that will assist them to acquire new skills. It is seen through training and coaching leaders are made (Bolden, 2016).
Like for instance: If a person is promoted to a post of a leader then it is important to explain the duties and responsibilities so that activities can be conducted smoothly. Training is given to an individual so that activities can be completed with efficiency and also if proper training is given to a leader then responsibilities can be completed with efficiency. It is important to offer training to a leader because it not only enhances the knowledge but also confidence level is enhanced effectively (Clinton, 2017). To be a leader it is important to give formal training as there are many people who can manage to learn and lead the team. Since good management is related to the rules and rules can be learned and mastered only. So, a leader is an individual who comes forward to take a challenge and overcome the problem with the skills that are learned from training (Fullan, 2014).
With the growing popularity of leadership theories such as behavioral theory and Theory X and Theory Y, the concept of leadership training is growing between organizations as well. In today's competitive business world, companies focus on gaining a competitive advantage based on the effectiveness of leadership styles of their executives. The corporations focus on providing appropriate training to their current executives for improving their leadership approach. Organizations can implement appropriate programs for teaching and improving the leadership style of their managers. The popularity of leadership training programs is growing continuously as the requirement of leadership grooming grows as well. Caprino (2014) provided that developing a leadership mindset is a first step for starting leadership training. Effective leadership is different from managing daily tasks at the workplace. Effective leaders encourage and inspire employees to improve their performance and achieve common organizational goals. However, it is not guaranteed that just implementing a leadership training program will improve the leadership qualities of managers in a company.
It is necessary that the firm evaluate different factors before implementing a leadership training program such as understating difference between leadership and management, evaluating good leadership behavior, assessing organizational requirements, defining manager qualities and strengths, gaining insights, polishing interpersonal skills and others (Mitgang, 2012). These factors improve the effectiveness of training program which enables leaders to enhance their leadership traits as well.
In recent years, leadership training program focus on polishing and improving specific leadership traits of candidates in order to improve their leadership approach. Leadership traits include integrity, authenticity, empathy, good communication, flexibility, compelling presence, humor, charisma, and others. The leadership training program focuses on improving these traits of candidates which improve their leadership approach (Micari, Gould, & Lainez, 2010).
However, most programs are unable to improve the leadership approach of candidates since it is difficult for them to indulge candidates in the learning process. Simply gaining theoretical knowledge regarding effective leadership approach did not improve leadership style of candidates. It is necessary that a customized training program is established by the company which addresses the issues faced by its managers and which focuses on improving their leadership style. The leadership program should be small, focused and supportive (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016). It is necessary that each individual in the program must have added attention and proper time to work and improve his/her skills. A small group also facilitates greater connection and support among candidates. A strong central leader is another key requirement of an effective leadership program. For example, General Electric (GE) has implemented an intense five-year training program for its executives who get training from professional experts from different fields (Kosur, 2015). The expertise of teachers directly influences the effectiveness of the training program.
During leadership training, the teachers should use multiple methods of learning leadership concepts because when it comes to leadership, one size does not fit all. It means that each person has different characteristics and traits which influence their leadership style. Leadership skills are influenced by behavior and also the skills that are possessed by an individual. Therefore, teachers should assess these qualities and implement a customized program for different candidates. Clearly describing goals and milestones for all leader participants also assist in improving leadership training effectiveness (Solansky, 2010). Teachers should set small and long-term goals for each leader participant that encourages them to achieve them and improve their leadership qualities. Effective leadership program also improves retention program in the company which enables them to preserve leaders. However, these elements did not guarantee the success or failure of a program, but it can bring leaders closer to becoming successful which is beneficial for the entire company (Sadri, 2012).
Therefore, it can be stated that leadership can be taught by implementing a training program in a company. Training programs also help to enhance the working pattern of the employees. It is seen that training helps to enhance the overall confidence level and also working structure can be managed effectively (Frich, Brewster, Cherlin & Bradley, 2015). To be a good leader it is important to work with dedication and confidence so that team members can be inspired easily. However, the effectiveness of a training program depends upon a number of factors which are necessary to be evaluated by the corporation before implementing a training program (Dopson, Ferlie, McGivern, Behrens & Fischer, 2016).
There are various characteristics of a good leader. As it is seen, leaders are diverse and they are of different nationalities, gender and personality profiles. Effective leaders are clear about what needs to be done. It is seen that they can express their vision of a desirable future in a simple way (Bolman & Deal, 2017). Leaders are ideas generators and they inspire other people to follow them. They can easily convince other to work according to them and also they have the quality to manage the conflicts that are prevailing in the organization. Leaders know how to stay calm and also they inspire others with the same technique. They use the technique that "when you lose your temper, you are not able to achieve a goal". Self-evaluation is considered as a strong characteristic of an effective leader. A good leader takes critics and tries to work on it. It is seen that no one wants to be corrected but effective leaders want to be corrected so that growth can be achieved. If negative feedbacks are taken from the people then it can be converted easily into a positive one (Antonakis & Day, 2017).
It is seen that good leader manage their work life with their personal life. They do not ignore their work life for their personal life and personal life for their work life. They know how to keep up their good health by managing the work. A good leader is a good communicator. He knows how to communicate with the team members and also knows that communication is not solely conversation (Goldman, 2016).The leader focuses on making the message understandable for every team member so that activities can be conducted accordingly. Leaders listen more than they talk with the members. It is the duty of the leader to communicate effectively with each and every one within the organization. A Good leader conducts the activities as per the rules and regulations of the organization. A good leader is the one who finds a solution to each and every problem prevailing in the organization. It is also important that good leader should have a strong moral base so that their decisions can be valued in the organization.
It is also essential for a good leader to be very creative so that failure can be reduced and productivity can be improved of the workers who are working in the business (Koseoglu, Liu & Shalley, 2017).
So, by analyzing the paper it is seen that leadership can be taught. It is seen that leaders can be made by bringing change in their behavior and also through training. There are no born leaders. Individuals are born with a strength that helps them to be a good leader. Leadership is considered as a skill. A good leader can be made by improving the qualities of practice. It is seen that more experience person is, more productivity can be achieved. A good leader can be made with more experience and also by improving the leadership skills. In many situations the organizations have leaders but their capability is not identified. In this case, the organization can create a good leader by offering them proper training and also by performance evaluation. If proper training is given to them, then it can be possible to conduct the activities with efficiency. This states that individuals are not born leaders. It is analyzed that individuals are born with the personal qualities that help them to be a good leader. When duty is assigned to an individual it offers an opportunity to learn new skills and being coached by someone to inspire them. Hence, it is seen that individuals can be inspired and achieve their skills so that success can be achieved easily.
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