Developmental Theories Make To Assessment Essay


What Implications Might A Young Client's Attachment Style Have Upon Their Capacity To Engage In Counselling?



The progression of the young people as well as adolescent might comply a sequence as made up of with the anticipated order for the appearance of particular behaviours and also features yet they are generally definitely variable (Ali, Farrer, Gulliver & Griffiths, 2015). The personalities of the children are quite uncertain in lieu of the anticipation of the stability of the adults. As associated with this instability which is observed in them it is a clear evidence which reveal the normal development that is really often marked by numerous the behavior problems. The child along with the adolescent therapist needs to be in a position to sort out these regular issues from those which can signify the a bit more serious problems. Additionally, the consciousness to the development might also aid the therapist with regards to the clinical decision making to the numerous point with regards to the treatment process (Dowling & Rickwood, 2014). There needs to be appropriate goal setting that is vital that you any one of the therapeutic venture. This offers the direction to our work, which might permit us to monitor on the progress. The children and adolescent assessment and development theory sets on the goal with regards to the development framework (Ali, Farrer, Gulliver & Griffiths, 2015). Moreover, additionally they assist in these people acquiring on the problem solving cognitive abilities or maybe the moral judgment aspects. In setting of the goals above the developmental anticipation is nearly as making certain the expectations is making certain the intervention would certainly fail (Dowling & Rickwood, 2014). The development theories allows the therapist in choosing on the suitable content and choose the degree of the therapeutic interaction which suit the children and the adolescents. Some of the notable developmental theories are those of work done by Freud, and Piaget (Ali, Farrer, Gulliver & Griffiths, 2015). On the Piaget’s of the Cognitive development has provided an excellent base when it comes to assessment of the intellectual development of the adults and the children. On this theory it provide a nature as well as the development of the human intelligence (Trower, Jones & Dryden, 2015). This theory is significance in assessment and the development of the children and adolescent because it shows a progressive reorganization of their mental process which could result from the biological maturation as the experience of the environment they live in. these individuals are able to construct the understanding of the world around them, they experience on the discrepancies between what they know and what they have already discovered in their environment, then they are able to adjust on their ideas accordingly (Dowling & Rickwood, 2014). This theory is at the centre of the human organism, and the language is the contingent when it comes to the knowledge and the understanding which has been acquired by the children and adolescent through their cognitive development. The second theory is the Freudian theory of the personality (Rupani, Cooper, McArthur, Pybis, Cromarty, Hill & Turner, 2014). According to Freud he claimed that the way parents treated their children basic sexual along with the hostile desires determined on their personality’s growth and also whether or not they might turn out as well adjusted adults (Joyce, P., & Sills, C. (2014). The children generally undergo a several stages of the sexual development that are oral, Anal, latency, Phallic, and the Genital. Depending on view of Freud every stage focusses on the sexual activity and the pleasure which is received from a particular part of the body. With regards to the oral phase, the children are generally focussed on the pleasures that happen to be received from the sucking and the biting with their mouth (Trower, Jones & Dryden, 2015). These psychosexual phases signify on the fixation of the libido on the numerous part of the body. As a child grows physically numerous areas of their body they become a significant source of the potential frustration (Joyce & Sills, 2014). When assessing of the children development Freud develop the theory to describe on the way that the sexual energy accumulates as well as discharge as individual mature biologically. Moreover, he stressed that the five years of life of the children are the most important to the formation of the personality into adults.

What implications might a young client's attachment style have upon their capacity to engage in counsellingOver the past the researcher has found out that the attachment theory has impact regulation and also interpersonal relationships. When people have the caregivers that are emotionally accountable, they are likely to develop secure attachment along with a positive inner working type of self and others (Dryden & Mytton, 2016). The adult attachment might be pointed out when it comes to the two dimensions that are the adult attachment anxiety along with the adult attachment prevention. The young style attachment style is the conceptualized as the fear of the interpersonal rejection and the abandonment , extreme requires especially for the acceptance from others , negative view of self , along with the hyper activation of affect regulation methods that the individual over-react to the negative mindset as a method of the gains of the others support and the comfort . With regards to this attachment style the patterns tend to be more often difficult to change when this person is used for the adulthood even though it is far from impossible (Dryden & Mytton, 2016). The studies which refers to the examining of the mediators of the relation that is between their attachment and their mental health results is important for the counselling since the mediators can help the individual to alleviate their distress. Furthermore, identifying of the mediator might assist individuals to decrease on the influences of the attachment patterns without requiring one changing on the patterns, which can be a much more daunting task.
There are numerous ramifications which the young client attachment style bring to their specifications when engaging in counselling (Dryden & Mytton, 2016). Initially the attachment style has a strong foundation with regards to the comprehending on the development of ineffective coping strategies along with the underlying dynamics of individual’s emotional difficulties. On the part of the clinicians they can help individuals with the attachment style in addition to avoidance understand on how exactly the past experiences with the caregivers or maybe other people have with regards to shaping on their patterns and precisely how these patterns work to protecting them initially but afterwards contribute to their experience of the distress . The attachment style of individual has the capacity of assisting the individual finding an alternative of fulfilling on their unmet needs (Westergaard, 2013). People who generally seek help would like to learn on how exactly to cope with their irregularities in their daily life along with modify on their dysfunctional or maybe ineffective coping strategies. When individual concentrate on the adjusting the dysfunctional coping strategies would not make certain that the people would cope well. People more regularly have acquired and continued to utilize the dysfunctional strategies simply because they have served an adaptive function by means of facilitating them to fulfil on their fundamental psychological needs for instance connection, autonomy as well as competence previously. Helping individuals find on their alternative ways in meeting on their unmet needs is vital when it comes to solving of their problems (Westergaard, 2013). You will need to concentrate on the modifying of the maladaptive coping strategies, but there is also a necessity to recognize on the underlying unmet needs that happen to be a lot more satisfied by utilizing these types of methods and assisting people understanding on the alternative ways to gratify on their psychological or maybe the emotional needs.

Individuals with the high attachment style may gradually become less in engaging in counselling and others could lose touch with their feelings or thoughts. These individuals may not have empathy to others on their emotional experiences. They may become lonely and future depression. Additionally, they become reluctant to self-disclosure and hold negative views to others. When it comes to engaging in counselling more often these people do not engages a lot they tend to hold their thoughts and feeling (McAndrew & Warne, 2014). It thus becomes difficult for the therapist to help them and the best solution to engage them would be counter complimentary interventions that improves on their ease and comfort level of self-disclosing to other people. The approach to lessen on their reluctance in the self-disclosure along with increase on their closeness is significant when it comes to decrease on the loneliness after the future depression.

Conceptualisation Case

Identifying information

Tim is a 9 year old boy and he is in fourth grade. He has a blonde hair. Compared to the other children in class Tim seems to be of smaller height and weight for his age. Tim dresses in attire which is clean and appropriate. He lives with his mum, dad and his fifteen year old brother. He loves reading books, and watching movies. In class he is a competent boy and very attentive, but his teacher is concerned about his behavior.

Chief complaint

Tim was referred to the counseling at his elementary school by his teacher. The teacher stated on the referral form that Tim exhibited anger behavior. This occurred while they were having discussion with his colleagues, he became angry and shouted at them “you know am not invisible.” He is not good in socializing particularly on the group work (McAndrew & Warne, 2014). The teacher calmed Tim down and wanted to know what the cause of the shouting was and highlighted to him he was not supposed to shoot but rather work together as a team to come with the various suggestions on the task they were assigned as a group.

Presenting the problem

Tim is the last born in his family and he lives with his mother, dad and his fifteen year old brother. Tim is not good in socializing with the other kinds and more often we are seeing him reading or playing alone (Geldard, Geldard & Foo, 2013). Moreover, when it comes to the group work he is not good at working with the other children, he is very shy and when others do not consider on his suggestion he becomes angry and shout at them. In this situation we see Tim wants to be the leader and his suggestion to be considered and rather not the other group members. The problem of team seems to have persisted over some period and I think it could have been reflected even at home. Tim seems to be shy and likes to be alone,

Relevant history

Tim is the last born in their family where he lives with his mother, father and dad. Tim do not socialize with other of the children and more often you would see him playing alone. Moreover, he is not good in the group discussion particularly he became angry when others did not approve on his contributed (Geldard, Geldard & Foo, 2013). The children do not usually develop their social skills as easily as others. They could earnest and seek on the peer relationships, the parents need to take long view of the social problem and be able to map out a plan to solve on this problem. The children usually go through a definitive phases of the social development (McAndrew & Warne, 2014). The children usually play alone quite happily, and in the event another child wanders onto the scene, they get clonked with a block out of the circle of play. In this case we can see Tim playing alone and even reading alone.

Interpersonal style:

Based on the Karen Horney’s conceptualization it is clear that Tim is moving against aggression and dominance. This has been exhibited when he was in the group work and each of the children was making a suggestion towards the problem they faced. Tim suggestion was not considered and he became angry and shouted to the other children. This shows some aggression behaviour and he want to be dominant to the others. He want to get on his way, and other to follow his suggestion without their decision being considered. We can also observe there is tendency towards one polarity of dominance towards another (Geldard, Geldard & Foo, 2015). In this case when Tim is playing he does not want to associate himself with the other children. This can also be exhibited in the when he is reading, he does it alone, in other words he is moving away from other withdrawing and want to alone. Based on the client interpersonal stance it is clear to say that above all, he is shy, and towards the counselor and he tried to explain that the other did not even take his suggestion into consideration. He felt they saw him as invisible in that nobody was listening to his suggestion. This shows that Tim does not know how to socialize with others, he wants to be alone and do his own this particularly playing or even reading. He is not comfortable talking to the others perhaps because he is shy.

Environmental factors:

When it comes to the psychology, there are many scholars who have debated on the issue of the environmental factors towards the child behavior. They have observed that the environment is important when shaping the behavior of the children. The children are not spared from arguably more susceptible to the influences of environment (Geldard, Geldard & Foo, 2015). This ranges from the way the family is structured to how the culture has been structured, and nearly every of the facet of the life teaches the children lessons in how they could adapt to the world.

There are various environmental factors which could have contributed to the Tim behavior. One of the aspect could be toxic stress. Stress can be in small doses in the context of the supportive environment which is important to the healthy development (McLeod, 2011). Tim could be having stress back from home or even in the school. When an individual does not socialize with other he tends to feel unwanted and start developing hatred to the others. Consequently, the individual begin to get stress which could hinder on their development and the ability to learn (McLeod, 2011). This has been clearly exhibited when Tim was not able to answer a question that he was asked by the teacher.

Personality dynamics

When it comes to the personality dynamics I will focus on the cognitive factors, emotional and the behavioral factors. Cognitive factors are the characteristics of the children which influence on the performance as well as their learning. These aspect serve in modulating on the performance in such as it could improve or perhaps decline (McLeod, 2014). Some of the cognitive functions include attention, memory and reasoning. In this case study it is clear that Tim has good reasoning and he is also attentive to details. He clearly is a good student, but the external stimuli such as the stress has impacted on his abilities negatively. This has been shown on his performance when he was asked a question he did not even know the answer to it.

Emotional factors:

The emotional learning begins at the young age and the learning usually grow with their age. The emotional expression has been related to both the social and the cultural influences of both the family and the surroundings. The relationship of the children to their caretaker could give the ability to express on both the positive and the negative emotions when it comes in a socially and culturally accepted manner. Example of emotional factors would be anger which could affect on the way to which the brain processes on the information given to you. The individuals who are angry have the difficulty when it comes to the processing of the logical statements, which limit on their ability to accept explaining and the solutions offered to others (Mearns, Thorne & McLeod, 2013). When it comes to this case study Tim was very angry particularly when he shouted to the other children in their group. Moreover, there would an aspect of anxiousness which could impact negative on the part of the brain that manages on the creativity and the communication skills (Mearns, Thorne & McLeod, 2013). An example it can be seen when Tim constantly worries in regards to the suggestion he makes to the other group members. This hinders on his ability to concentrate on the information which he give or even receive from the others.

Behavioral factors:

One of the behavioral factors would be the ego aspect. This is when individuals behave in was which makes them feel good about themselves, and what to gain an approval from the others. In the case of Tim it is evident he has some ego, particularly when he want to have his way and not others. Moreover, he wanted the other group members to notice him and his suggestion to be approved (Churchill, Khaira, Gretton, Chilvers, Dewey, Duggan & Antidepressants in Primary Care (CAPC) Study Group, 2000). Moreover, there are other aspect such as commitment and the reciprocity which is monitored by the other individual which has a strong bearing when it comes to our behavior. Tim is much committed in his work and particularly in his studies. He is often seen reaching and been focused on his work. Moreover, this individuals want others to reciprocate on his contribution to the group work they were doing.

Counselor’s conceptualization of the problem:

As a counselor the first thing would to learn and understand the emotions of Tim, particularly feeling upset and shouting when around other people. In the case of Tim it is evident in regards to his cognitive aspect it is evident that he has a good reasoning, and his performance is good. Looking at his behavioral aspect he has some ego issues particularly when he becomes upset and shout to the others. The problem that has been affecting Tim has been associated to socializing with others. Moreover, it has been observed he is shy and does not socialize well with others particularly in the group discussion. From these observation there are recommendation should could be employed to be able to solve on the issues affecting Tim. Based on this case it has been found that the cognitive behavioral therapy techniques could be useful when working with the children particularly who suffer from the socialization syndrome (McAndrew & Warne, 2014). Moreover, the family and the teacher should complement on the cognitive behavioral techniques to provide a well-rounded treatment for the child as well as the support of the parent.

Describe how you would engage with Tim in an initial counselling session

As a counselor of Tim case the first thing I would begin in the session would to learn and understand the emotions of this child particularly on why he has been upset and angry to an extent of shouting to the other children in the group work. In order to do this, I would bring sheet with the pictures of twenty faces with the various emotions. I would then review each of these emotions with Tim and asked him to describe on each of the emotions, or perhaps provide an example of what he experience towards each of the emotions (McAndrew & Warne, 2014). I would then ask him a series of question and ask him to identify an emotion to each of the question I pose. Some of the question I do you feel about the other students? How do you feel when your are at the school? How do you feel about working with the others? This exercise would be done to a couple of sessions, and on each we would refer back to the emotions sheet to check how he is feeling towards others. I believe continued doing this would bring some progress in the counseling to enable him to open up and become more confident. I think the main issue Tim is facing is how to socialize, and also it is evident Tim is shy.

I would also make another intervention through the solution focused therapy. This is where you allow the child to identify on the aspects of his life which he need to improve. I would provide question which, he would answer then we brainstorm thing together. This would provide an empowering experience for him since he would be able to change on the way he react and act towards others. Additionally, I could purchase on a small journal for Tim to carry around to write on the issues which affect him when he is with the other people. To be able to improve on Tim interactions with the other people I would implement a role playing in the counseling. Here I would have Tim to practice asking the other kids in the class to play during recess. Role playing role during the counseling session would give Tim courage and well build on his social skills to talk and participate with the other kids. Moreover, this would provide practice for him to practice on what he was not comfortable with. By allowing Tim to practice it would provide a positive attitude as well as courage to implement such skills at the later time while he is in class or perhaps when they are playing. Once we practice on a skill enough to the level which Tim is comfortable with we will make it a goal to enable him to practice it with the other children in the class at least once before the next session. Tim can report back the following week and process on how it would go.

Challenges of working with a client the age of Tim as a counselor

Some of the challenges faced by the counselor when it comes to the client who are under aged would be the issue of competency and the training. The counselor may face the challenge of not understanding the specific issues which is faced by the children. Moreover, the counselor could not have the required training or the skills when it comes to facilitating on the dialogue (Van Deurzen & Adams, 2016). Another challenge could be parental involvement. In some cases the parent of the children may not be available when the child is in the session would create a barrier of the counselor to fully understand on the issue which are affecting the child. It is important for the parents and the professionals to work together in order to find the solutions. Some of the parents could be mistrusting or perhaps unwilling to work with the counselor creating barriers for progress on the case affecting the child. Moreover, there could be challenging situations as well as the unfortunate circumstances where the guardians could be a single parent, other members or even entirely absent (Dowling & Rickwood, 2014). There would be the challenge of emotionally draining aspect where the counselor may feel their job intrinsic involving with the other people lives and the problem could lead to the burnout. The counselor may become cynic and ineffective when delivering his assistance. This could be brought about the social environment in which the counselor work. Another challenge would be the legal issues (Dowling & Rickwood, 2014). An example of this could be demonstrated in the event that the child was encountering child abuse, the counselor could be faced with the decision to report on that case on one aspect and on the other hand he need to maintain the confidentiality of information provided by the client.


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