Demographic Changes In The Workforce Essay

Analyse how demographic changes in the workforce can require additional management, leadership and communication skills.



For the current study, New Zealand based hospitality industry Prince’s Gate Hotel has been taken into consideration. It is situated in the Roturua region of New Zealand and provides a wide number of options such as staying, dining, and conducting formal business meetings. The serene beauty of Roturua attracts huge number of customers owing to its beautiful lakes, river and forests.

The hotel has some of its USP recipes such which are a major customer puller such as the Prince’s Gate High Tea. The hotel provides some of the exclusive offers from time to time such as the “Brunch everyday kids dine free!” (, 2018). Under this kids who were under the age of 12 could access free breakfast from 7 am to 11 am every day. The hotel often organizes fashion shows from time to time along with ‘Rock and Rollin’ mid winter party. Therefore, the hotel accommodates a wide range of host such as the party lovers, the business classes along with providing tables and services for large families. Since the hotel caters to the needs and requirements of multicultural clients who come from diverse geographical backgrounds and communicate in different languages, it often becomes difficult to understand their needs and demands. Therefore, the customer support services need to boost their communication skill which is based upon use of effective gestures for getting through the multilingual guests effectively (Rohmetra & Aurora, 2015). Additionally, the management need to focus upon imparting effective training to the employees in order to implement effective cultural sensitivity (Ersoy, 2014).

Justification of the cultural intelligence training workshop of the Princes Gate hotel

The cultural intelligence (cultural quotient/CQ) here refers to being respectful and sensitive towards others cultural faiths and beliefs. As mentioned by Rahimi and Gunlu (2016), one may be working with huge base of multicultural and multilingual client within a hospitality industry as individual cultural faiths and beliefs may differ. For example, the workplace conflicts may arise due to violation of personal beliefs and practices.

As a supervisor working for the Princes Gate Hotel, I have personally faced conflicting situations in disseminating the duties amongst the workforce. For example, while disseminating the duties to the kitchen staff I have felt that on certain occasions some of the cooks who belonged to the eastern part of the globe preferred not to get involved in cooking procedures of Halal chicken as they considered such treatment of animals inhuman. However, there had been great demand in the restaurant for this variant of the chicken. However, forcing the staff to cook this variant of the chicken may go against their cultural sentiments. Therefore, one way the dilemma could be overcome was through implementing culturally safe practices within the workplace (Butler, Kwantes & Boglarsky, 2014). These were aimed at making the workforce develop respect for each other’s cultural beliefs and cooperate with each other while undertaking the assigned tasks.

Objectives of the CQ training workshop

  • To reduce the cultural shock among the employees from diverse cultural background, as lack of cultural safety at the workplace inhibits any cross cultural interactions.
  • To understand how CQ is related to the development of the cultural safe practice, as it helps in managing conflict at the workplace from a business perspective.
  • To manage the conflict and chaos in the workplace, as it would help the trainees to build a framework.

Literature review:

Cultural safe places through CQ

As stated earlier cultural intelligence or cultural quotient is the ability of a person in diverse cultural background. It is the cultural quotient that helps an individual to be reasonably alert, motivated and poised for achieving the goals. It is the cultural quotient that would help the employee to develop the cultural knowledge about other cultures. This can be helpful especially for the management of the conflicts at workplace (Chen, Lin & Sawangpattanakul, 2011). A CQ training is especially necessary in context of a health care setting as people from different cultures takes access to the health care services. According to Van Dyne et al. (2013), CQ enables the employees to develop cross cultural skills such as relational skills, tolerance of the uncertainty, Adaptability, empathy and perceptual acuity. These components enable the employees to tolerate the uncertainties, change their behaviour as per the cultural demands. It will enable a person to put oneself in the shoe of the others and imagine the situation from their perspective (Chen etc al., 2011). In all, employees having high levels of cultural intelligence would help in bridging the gap in the organisation; educate the peers regarding various cultures and transmission of education among disparate groups.

Concept of CQ

Globalisation has rendered every sector the business more complex, dynamic and competitive. The concept of cultural quotient or cultural intelligence had never been more important for any organisations. It helps to develop the interpersonal connections in a multicultural workplace (Furham 2012). CQ training always helps to foster the sense of creativity and innovativeness among the employees as CQ provides the ability to integrate diverse resources and cultures. As stated by Furham (2012) some of the benefits of CQ is creating a productive relationship with the clients by understanding them, establish a common ground, maximising the teamwork in the groups, pr5oviding the best opportunities to understand the international clients. It plays a huge role in determining the cooperation among the people from different cultures, nationalities, traditions, functions and disciplines (Ng et al., 2012).

CQ blunders

Some of the barriers of CQ are improper communication. Lack of a proper leadership can help in the development of teamwork for facilitating cross cultural communication.

Cultural shock

Cultural shock can occur with the clients or the employees coming from different nationalities. A cultural shock can be a surprising and an unpredictable experience that can deteriorate their ways of living. The unfamiliar experiences may trigger frustration, disorientation and anxiety. According to Rohmetra & Arora. (2015) , in order to develop the CQ it is necessary to go via the development leadership competency model.
According to (Ang & Van Dyne (2015) person with better cognitive CQ will develop less cultural shock. A proper CQ training would help in the development of intercultural and interpersonal communication that would help to mitigate uncertainty and misunderstandings.

4CQ factor model

The 4CQ factors are metacognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ and behavioural CQ. Cognitive CQ can be defined as the cultural knowledge of an individual regarding the legal, economic and social aspects of different culture. Individuals of this type have god cognitive processing ability. Whereas the motivational CQ is the intrinsic interest of the person and develops self efficacy for the cross cultural adjustment perspective (Chen etc al., 2011). Behavioural
CQ can be defined as the ability to perform verbal and non verbal communication while interacting with people from diversified culture. It is the metacognituve CQ that helps the employees to remain aware of the cultural preferences of other persons. As per the past researches motivation can strengthen the perseverance of the task efforts and increases efficacy.


Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (2015). Handbook of cultural intelligence. Routledge.

Butler, A. M., Kwantes, C. T., & Boglarsky, C. A. (2014). The effects of self-awareness on perceptions of leadership effectiveness in the hospitality industry: A cross cultural investigation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 40, 87-98.

Chen, A. S. Y., Lin, Y. C., & Sawangpattanakul, A. (2011). The relationship between cultural intelligence and performance with the mediating effect of culture shock: A case from Philippine laborers in Taiwan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(2), 246-258.

Ersoy, A. (2014). The Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness: A Qualitative Study in the Hospitality Industry. Journal of Yasar University, 35(9), 55-65.

Furham, A. (2012). Culture shock. Revista de Psicolog?a de la Educaci?n, 7.

Ng, K. Y., Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Ryan, A. M. (2012). Cultural intelligence: A review, reflections, and recommendations for future research. Conducting multinational research: Applying organizational psychology in the workplace, 29-58. (2018), , Retrieved on 13 June 2018, from

Rahimi, R., & Gunlu, E. (2016). Implementing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in hotel industry from organizational culture perspective: Case of a chain hotel in the UK. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(1), 89-112.

Rohmetra, N., & Arora, P. (2015). The interface between cultural intelligence and customer satisfaction: the hospitality" perspective".

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Ng, K. Y., Rockstuhl, T., Tan, M. L., & Koh, C. (2012). Sub?dimensions of the four factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence. Social and personality psychology compass, 6(4), 295-313.

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