Change management is an organized approach that is planned and executed to bring about a positive change in a company and its people. Change Management has 3 different parts: adjusting according to the change, guiding the change, achieving the change (Rouse, 2014). In a company change management means stating and applying techniques in response to changes in environment and the success that result from these changes.
The more emphasis is on the workers and how they as alone or in groups carry out these changes from the present scenario to a new one. Change does not happens in separation, it affects the whole unit surrounding it, and all the workers that are involved (Change Management, 2014). So in a way to accomplish change profitably, it is important to consider the broader effects of change.
Change Management Models
Some models are prescribed for change management in organizations. These models are helpful as they define and streamline a process, to make it easy to apprehend.
The Prosci Adkar Model
A change in any unit can only start by considering this in mind that how a change can be accomplished with an individual. Between the various implements accessible to bring a change in person, the ADKAR model presented by Prosci is most widely used. It is a task concerned model to teach an individual and an organization regarding the change. ADKAR is an abbreviation in which each letter denotes five signposts a person should attain to become successful: awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinforcement (Hiatt, 1994). The model gives an outline and order for handling an individual from the beginning in response to change. The ADKAR model starts when a change has been recognized. In Standard form, to bring about any change a person require: awareness of the importance of change, desire to involve in that change, knowledge on how the change can be brought about, ability to execute the necessary talents and conducts, reinforcement to maintain the change. This model sketches the aims, objectives and results of the fruitful change. It is an efficient and active implement for scheduling change management events, identifying breaks, evolving remedial deed, and gives assistance to managers (Board, 2013).
To make best out of this model, it is essential to comprehend all the features in role at the beginning and its result on the change accomplishment. Change occurs in two sizes: 1) business side of change 2) individual side of change. Fruitful change is an outcome of all the two sizes of change growing concurrently.
The basic model for accepting change in an organization was made by Kurt Lewin in 1950. He viewed the fact that many people likes and functions in regions of wellbeing and security (Normandin, 2012). His model consist of 3 steps: unfreeze, change, refreeze. He defined change in an organization by comparing with the change in shape of a cube of ice.
Unfreeze –Many people makes a dynamic attempt against a change. To defeat this approach, a gap period of melting or unfreezing must be announced through inspiration. Make the organization realize that change is important (Three Types of Change Management Models,2012). Collapse the present status of the organization to formulate a new style of functioning. Cultivate convincing letters as to why the current style of undertaking things cannot stay. Provocate the organizational opinions, morals, approaches, and conducts. Presume vagueness (Board, 2013).
Change– Once the change has begun, the organization proceeds towards a shift period, which can stay for some duration of time. Satisfactory direction and guarantee is important for the procedure to be fruitful (Three Types of Change Management Models, 2012). People starts to find solution to their vagueness, find and have faith in new styles of doing things, and proceed in manner to provide new path. They will need some time to hold to new path and sincerely join the change. Understand that each person will not confirm with others to keep the change and its advantages (Board, 2013).
Refreeze – When the change has been acknowledged and fruitfully executed, the organization turn out to be constant again, workers refreezes when they function under fresh procedures (Three Types of Change Management Models, 2012). Changes starts to assume a form and shape. External symbols comprises a steady organization chart, regular job explanations, while internalization includes integration into ordinary business. Credit to workers pains fortifies their trust in coming change. Organising parties for the victory of change helps workers to find conclusion (Board, 2013).
The change model proposed by Lewin is modest and easy to carry out. It begins with crafting any inspiration to change (unfreeze), carrying the process of change by upholding active means of exchange of information and permitting workers to hold new style of doing their job. The change lasts when the company proceeds to a stage of constancy (refreeze), which is important for crafting the coolness to board to the next upcoming unavoidable change. Every stage marks its own functions that denotes inspiration, execution, and loyalty to changes within an organization.
This model was proposed by John Kotter, a lecturer from Harvard university. This model sees change as a battle to be fought. The workers completely believe in the set of ideas after the frontrunners persuades them about the immediate action required for the change to happen. According to him for a change to occur, 75 percent of the workers should have believe in new set of opinions and for this he familiarizes with an eight-step method for executing fruitful changes ((Board, 2013).
The 8 stages are:
Initiating the firmness for change- To assist the workers for the requirements for change and the people will be persuaded for acting in that direction instantly.
Form a crew committed to change: Gather a team with sufficient supremacy to bring about a change. Boost the team to work collectively and friendly.
Construct the vision for change: construct a vision to get a straight advantage in their reaction of change. Cultivate plans for attaining the vision constructed.
4. Exchanging information regarding the need for change: Ensure that maximum number of people comprehends and agrees to follow the vision constructed and the plan and scheme.
Permit team with the capacity to change: Eradicate hurdles from the way to change. Change all the processes or structures which are responsible to completely weaken the vision already constructed. Inspire people to carry out threat-taking and old thoughts and actions.
Develop objectives that are for a short period of time: Make schedule for all the accomplishments that can be observed and seen very easily. Monitor all these accomplishments and identify and distinguish those workers that are responsible for it. Those workers should be given a reward.
Remain determined and don’t give up: Make use of enlarged reliability to change processes, structures, and strategies which cannot be associated to the vision already constructed. Appoint, encourage, and mature workers who can execute the vision. Refresh and strengthen the systems with fresh schemes, plans, subjects and change managers.
Mark the change as everlasting and integrating it into the organizational culture: Coherent networks should be established between fresh actions and victory of the organizations. Create ways to make sure that leadership advances in a sequence.
Kotter’s stages are laid on a strong groundwork of exchange of information between people, authorization, and attention on the vision made. Following the change, it is important to embed new approaches so that people do not revert to old habits. Monitoring, feedback, and intervention are necessary for a period after the changes have occurred.
Schein elaborates the Lewin model and defines means to melt a company, transfers it to a new state and stabilizes the change. According to him for melting a company people should not be in accordance with the present state, they should develop an urge to change and then hold on to that change(1992, 1985, 1980) After people realizes the necessity for change and changes are brought, people see a hole between what is present and what will come new. As a result of this fault, the workers will be inspired to minimize the hole and attain the change required. People should be made sure that the change will not humiliate them. He calls second stage as cognitive restructuring in which people perceive and reply to things inversely in the forthcoming times. For this to be efficient, people should recognize fresh role replicas for the cognitive restructuring. People should attain fresh, appropriate details which will help people to carry onward with the desired change. He divided third stage in two segments- self and relations with others. For changes to be everlasting, people should follow the altered route of doing things as a portion of their individual self-esteem. People should be sure that their individual approaches and conduct are associated with the system and associations with others must be frozen.
Researchers suggests four subjects or matters that were in general to all changes (1) subjective problems which laid emphasis on the material of current changes in organization; (2) circumstantial problems that are concerned mostly with powers in an organization’s outside and inside environments;(3) structure problems which speaks deeds carried out during the presentation of any proposed change and (4) benchmark problems which laid emphasis on the results generally measured in struggles during a change in an organization.
According to researchers, 3 steps are required that initiate and causes change. Firstly change takes place in response to a reaction to environmental issues. There are very big external environmental factors like improved technology, monetary changes, and fast growth in world market, irregular culture and social systems which are the dynamic powers that causes the necessity to change (George and Jones, 2002). Within an organization the leaders creates various internal environmental powers that causes the change to increase the company’s development and progress. The essential changes starts in some organizations which causes fundamental conversion in which they try to refresh business directions by transforming the reporting format. Secondly after the change is viewed it has to be administered and executed by functioning in the way of planned aim. Lastly, the change is considered and the company calculates its results by comparing it with the aim it has to achieve (Marshak, 2006).
In present period, organization lays its importance on the routine or regular soft problems like headship, inspiration and culture. Researchers suggests that these essential parts are important, but only considering them cannot implement a change (Sirkin, 2005). But the company has to lay more emphasis on the tough elements of the issues concerning change management. For this four features has been defined: 1) Duration signifies the time in which change has been carried out. 2) Integrity refers to the skill of the group working as a team to implement the change in the time proposed, depending on the capability of the workers. 3) Commitment is the attitude of the leader in response to change and also the love of the workers towards the new process. 4) Effort refers to the assessment of the additional energy that the workers put in to bring the change other than their regular work.
According to me Lewin change management model is the best as it is simple, a three step process requires less of time and above all easy to understand and to a maximum suits in many organizations.
In future, change itself is shifting because of fast moving, scientific and more competition with in the world. So the change models should have a good vision, aim and objective. The change management models are still used as they were used in olden times but the only difference is in the quickness of each stage or level. In old times these changes became the function of the company but now they are considered as on time event. There were various theories for change management depending on the requirements. This article elaborates the ADKAR, Lewin, Kotter, Schein models for change management. For a change to be fruitful, the systems and processes incorporated should be simple, priceless, and workers at all levels should have the power to decide regarding that change (Pryor et al, 2008). And also only those organizations succeed in which the leaders in a company should have a foresight to discover the future while others fail which cannot discover and adjust to that change.
List Of References
Rouse, M. (2014). Change Management. Tech Target.
Change Management: Making organization could happen effectively. (2014). Mind Tools.
Hiatt, J. (1994). Adkar Change Management Model. Prosci.
Board, M, F. (2013). Change Management: theories and methodologies. Tata consultancy Services.
Normandin, B. (2012). Three types of change management models. Quick base.
Creasey, J, T. Hiatt, M, J. (2014). Summary of Change Management: The People Side of Change. Colorado: Business centre.
Vliet, V, V. (2014). Organizational culture model by Edgar Schein. Tools hero: explore business and science.
Edgar Schein Model of Organization Culture. (2016). MSG: management study guide.
Sirkin, Harold L., Keenan, Perry, Jackson, Alan. (2005). The Hard side of Change Management. Harvard Business Review, 109-118. Retrieved from Emerald February 2, 2009.
Pryor, G, M. Taneja, S. Anderson, D. (2008). Challenges facing change management theories and research. Delhi Business Review. Vol. 9, Issue 1.
Chapman, A. (2014). Change Management. Business balls.
McCrimmon, M. (2010). A new role for management in today’s post-industrial organization. IVEY business journal.
Schein, E.H. (1996) 'Kurt lewin's change theory in the field and in the classroom: notes towards a model of management learning'. Systems Practice, Vol. 9.
Marshak, Robert J. and Schein, Ed. (2006). Covert Processes at Work: Managing the Five Hidden Dimensions of Organizational Change. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Kotter, J.P. (1996) Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Lewin, M. (1992) 'The impact of kurt lewin's life on the place of social issues in his work', Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 15-29.