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  • Paula Baker, Administrative Associate at Arizona State UniversityInstructional Coach at Rio Salado university at Instructional Coach

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  1. 1. important Reflective Writing in Social Perform by Linda Macdonald, PhD The Dalhousie Writing Centre
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Critical representation </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Reflective Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reflective writing vs. the educational essay </li></ul><ul><li>comprehending the project </li></ul><ul><li>Structural models for critical reflective writing </li></ul><ul><li>Language use </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>References and extra resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. Critical reflection <ul><li>Critical expression analyzes experience by checking out social, governmental, educational, and cultural contexts and exposing the assumptions that dictate response. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reflection allows us </li></ul><ul><li>to engage in transformative learning by engaging both explanation and feeling (Taylor, 2001); </li></ul><ul><li>to situate ourselves within a broader social context; </li></ul><ul><li>to realize our values, opinions, and biases; </li></ul><ul><li>to work through seemingly contradictory feelings, reactions, and understandings in order to better work with clients; </li></ul><ul><li>to assess our learning so our learning informs our practice. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Critical expression <ul><li>According to Brookfield (1988, as cited by Clark, 2011), critical representation involves </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption analysis – challenging our philosophy and social structures in order to figure out their affect our training; </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual awareness – determining the social and social contexts that influence our presumptions; </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative conjecture – imagining alternate means of thinking so that you can challenge our present means of thinking; </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective skepticism – questioning universal claims or unexamined interactions by suspending or temporarily rejecting previous understanding of the topic. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Critical reflective writing <ul><li>Reflective writing enables us </li></ul><ul><li>to pursue these critical reflections on a deeper, more difficult degree; </li></ul><ul><li>to confront the challenge of explaining our a few ideas; </li></ul><ul><li>to show our knowledge of theory and course content; </li></ul><ul><li>to website link experience and knowledge; </li></ul><ul><li>to make use of reflections to share with our training within the industry; </li></ul><ul><li>to develop the abilities required to become lifelong learners. </li></ul>
  6. 6. important reflective writing vs. the academic essay <ul><li>Critical reflective writing differs from the typical educational essay composing in many means. Academic reflective writing </li></ul><ul><li>makes utilization of the first person; </li></ul><ul><li>considers the self an object of inquiry; </li></ul><ul><li>incorporates experience as a kind of evidence; </li></ul><ul><li>However, like educational essays, critical reflective writing </li></ul><ul><li>integrates secondary source material; </li></ul><ul><li>uses formal English; </li></ul><ul><li>incorporates discipline-specific language; </li></ul><ul><li>follows academically appropriate citation and referencing instructions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Understanding the assignment <ul><li>Refer to the course tips while the instructor for clarification on the assignment. Objectives for reflective writing can differ. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how many secondary sources needed for this assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the type of the finished piece. Are you asked to complete a journal? Self-assessment? Learning journal? An even more structured research piece? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structural models for critical reflective writing <ul><li>Critical reflective writing is the culmination of the critical reflective reasoning procedure; it shows your capability to explore, to question, and also to analyze experience and to utilize scholastic content to boost your comprehension of this experience. </li></ul><ul><li>On the next slides, you will find models for structuring your reflective writing. While these models utilize various terminology to describe the dwelling of reflective writing, they have been similar in going from an account of expertise, to analysis regarding the experience, and finally towards the implications associated with the experience. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Model A: The DEAL model <ul><li>Lay and McGuire (2010) adapted Ash and Clayton’s (2004) DEAL type of reflective writing in social work. Lay and McGuire give an explanation for components of a structured critical reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: DESCRIBE the knowledge. Provide precisely the function or activity that prompts this expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: EXAMINE the ability through integration of individual experience and academic content. Using assumption analysis, contextual understanding, imaginative conjecture, and reflective doubt, evaluate the knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: ARTICULATE LEARNING by giving an answer to the questions proposed by Lay and McGuire (p.550): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exactly what did we learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exactly how did I discover it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does it matter if you ask me as a social worker? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will i really do in my future social work training in light with this learning? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Model B: The University of Portsmouth pupil support model <ul><li>This model, outlined by Hampton (2010), includes three components: </li></ul><ul><li>1. DESCRIPTION </li></ul><ul><li>What took place? What exactly is being analyzed? </li></ul><ul><li>2. INTERPRETATION </li></ul><ul><li>what's most critical/ interesting/useful/relevant about the item, occasion, or concept? </li></ul><ul><li>just how can it be explained with concept? </li></ul><ul><li>just how can it be much like and various off their activities or experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>3. OUTCOME </li></ul><ul><li>exactly what have actually I discovered from this? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it suggest for my future inside industry? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Model C: Features of academic reflection <ul><li>Ryan (2011, p. 104) developed a listing of elements obvious in academic expression: </li></ul><ul><li>RECOUNT an event or event is re-told using temporal indicators, such as for instance “then” or “next”, and offering initial responses. </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION a conference is described utilising the language specified on field. The big event may be compared/contrasted with similar activities or experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION How and just why the big event or experience happened is explained through evidence and assessment and with the language of cause and impact (“because”, “therefore”, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>DISCUSSION feasible reactions, actions, or changes in training are presented. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The dwelling of reflective writing <ul><li>Reflective writing, then, basically asks you to definitely examine experience and provide </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLICATIONS </li></ul>
  13. 13. The structure of reflective writing <ul><li>You may be expected to create a formal written piece just like an academic essay in form. This kind of reaction calls for an introduction, human body, and conclusion. In crafting your reaction, think about the following (from Ryan, 2011): </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies an issue and just why it's important </li></ul><ul><li>May usage theory to explain relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Outlines key themes your paper will deal with </li></ul><ul><li>BODY PARAGRAPHS </li></ul><ul><li>Each paragraph presents a style or topic </li></ul><ul><li>Provides proof from training or current literature/theory </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Restates the matter </li></ul><ul><li>Reiterates key points </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the implications associated with points </li></ul><ul><li>May recommend possibilities for future years or suggest modifications </li></ul>
  14. 14. Language use within critical reflective writing <ul><li>The language you select should enhance the content. Think about the next questions relating to your language use. The italicized sections indicate the type of responses anticipated. In assessing your work, you ought to be in a position to recognize clearly the precise language used in a reaction to each question. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Language use in critical reflective writing (adapted from Ryan, 2011) <ul><li>how can the writer suggest that he/she is addressing or answering something she or he has been involved in or observed? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of personal pronoun “I”; use of reasoning and sensing terms including “I feel”, “I realize”, “I question”, “I wonder”. </li></ul><ul><li>How exactly does the writer suggest the way the event occurred? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of temporal language, including “previously”, “first”, “then”, “afterwards”, “subsequently”. </li></ul><ul><li>so how exactly does the journalist demonstrate understanding of the social work control? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of terms and technical language definite toward field of social work. </li></ul><ul><li>How exactly does the author relate this occasion to similar incidents of individual experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of comparison/contrast language (“similarly”, “unlike”, “alternatively”); usage of instance. </li></ul><ul><li>(cont.) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Language use within critical reflective writing <ul><li>How exactly does the author demonstrate interpretation of events? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of phrases like “the most significant element…”, “initially I questioned…”, “the appropriate aspects had been…”, “probably because of…”, “this problem might have resulted in..” </li></ul><ul><li>so how exactly does the journalist explanation and explain why things occurred how they did? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of causal language, like “because” ,“since”, or “due on fact that”; use of recommendations to literature and practice as proof. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the journalist check out the future and suggest exactly how he or she will reconstruct and use brand new knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of terms showing the near future, including “will”, “going to”, “should”, “may” or “can”. </li></ul><ul><li>how can the journalist reinforce the implications? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of phrases such as for instance “this knowledge could helpful to me as a practitioner because..”, “this understanding will likely be important to me personally as a learner because…”, or “this skill is vital for…” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exemplory case of educational reflective writing from Learning Center, The University of the latest Southern Wales http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/reflect.html <ul><li>(Description/explanation of method) The industry notes were written by hand on lined paper. They contains jotted notes and ‘mental triggers’ (personal notes that will remind me of certain things with regards to found composing the notes up). I took some direct observational records recording the things I saw in which this was strongly related the research questions and, when I ended up being planning to get a sense of the culture and working environment, I additionally made researcher inference notes. (Includes discipline-specific language) </li></ul><ul><li>(Critical evaluation of technique) i discovered the notetaking process itself helpful, since it ensured that we listened carefully and decoded information. Not all the knowledge I recorded was appropriate, but noting what I discovered informative added to my ability to form a summary on re-reading. However, the reliability of jotted notes alone may be debateable. For instance, the notes are not an immediate transcription of just what the topics said but contains pertinent or interesting information. Hardly ever did I have time for you transcribe a primary quotation, so relied by myself fairly rapid paraphrasing, which risks changing the meaning. Some technical information ended up being tough to make a note of accurately. (Summary and recommendation in line with the writer’s experience) A tape recorder might have been a much better, more accurate method. But one pupil brought a tape recorder and had been expected to modify it off by a participant who was uneasy about her comments being directly recorded. It seems that topics feel in a different way about being recorded or photographed (in the place of observers using records), so particular consent ought to be wanted before utilizing these technologies. </li></ul>
  18. 18. APA referencing <ul><li>Use of additional sources with proper citations and referencing demonstrates academic integrity and effective engagement out there. </li></ul><ul><li>Use proper author/date in-text citation. Add page figures for direct quotations. </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetize the reference list and use hanging indents. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the guidelines for APA 6 th edition: </li></ul><ul><li>http://libraries.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/library/Style_Guides/apa_style6.pdf </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sources and additional resources <ul><li>Clark, D.R. (2011). Learning through reflection. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/development/reflection.html </li></ul><ul><li>Hampton, M. (2010). Reflective writing: a fundamental introduction. Retrieved from http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/studentsupport/ask/resources/handouts/writtenassignments/filetodownload,73259,en.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Lay, S., & McGuire, L. (2010). Building a lens for critical reflection and reflexivity in social work training. Personal Work Education 29 (5), 539-550. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Writing. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/reflect.html </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan, M. (2011). Improving reflective writing in degree: A social semiotic perspective. Training in Higher Education 16 (1), 99-111. </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, E. (2001). Transformative learning concept: A neurobiological perspective associated with part of emotions and unconscious ways of once you understand. Global Journal of Lifelong Education, 20 (3), 218-236. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing the sociology paper. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~writing/materials/student/soc_sciences/sociology.shtml </li></ul>
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