The present essay aims to carry out critical analysis of research article ‘Whatever happened to human resource management performance? In this context, it has presented an in-depth insight about objective, methodology, analysis technique, arguments and findings, implications for managers, strengths and weakness of the research article.
Topic of the Article
The article ‘Whatever happened to human resource management performance’ demonstrates the importance of Human Resource Management (HRM) in increasing organizational performance and effectiveness. The main purpose of the author in writing the article is to provide an in-depth understanding of the development of HRM techniques over time and their significance in improving the organizational as well as individual performance (Prowse & Prowse, 2010).
Objective of the Article
The main objective of the article is to analyze and examine the contribution of human resources in increasing organizational performance. It aims to explore the impact of effective Human Resource Management (HRM) in increasing organizational effectiveness in private, public and non-profit firms. The emergence of HRM as a distinct management discipline over time and its significance for organizations is evaluated in-depth in the present article (Prowse & Prowse, 2010).
Methodology and Means of Analysis Used in the Article
The methodology adopted in the research article for achieving its objectives stated is literature review method. The author has used the method of critical literature for evaluating the contribution of HRM on organizational performance (Prowse & Prowse, 2010). Literature review method is adopted in the present research context as the research topic is subjective in nature and can be properly analyzed through carrying out critical analysis of existing literature studies. The data collected through literature review method is analyzed through the use of systematic review in the research article. Systemic review includes analyzing and examining the findings obtained from different studies in order to determine the relationship between findings for achieving the aims and objectives of the study (Cronin et al., 2008).
Argument Advanced in the Article
The research article focuses on achieving an understanding of the interdependence between effective human resource management and organizational effectiveness. In this context, the main argument advanced in the article is whether HRM improves the performance of an organization. The critical analysis of different literature studies in this regard demonstrated that effective HRM techniques in an organization enhance the employee commitment. Higher organizational commitment of employees subsequently results in increased productivity and sales for an organization. Organizational effectiveness can be measured by its efficiency to achieve the aims and objectives with optimum utilization of resources. The research article, in this context, has emphasized that presence of effective HRM techniques is essential for an organization to enhance the human efficiency thus leading to its improved performance (Prowse & Prowse, 2010).
The author in the research article believes that HRM approach is used by organizations worldwide for achieving competitive advantage through effective employee management. The strategic development of skilled and capable workforce in an organization is the main responsibility of HRM department of an organization. The introduction and development of HRM techniques has presented new ideas for organizations to motivate the employees for achieving the business goals and objectives. The HRM practices include various types of organizational activities such as recruitment, selection, appraisal, raining, teamwork, empowerment, performance management and many others.
HRM practices are directly linked to the development of skilled and competent workforce in an organization and thus enhancing its performance. The research study has emphasized n the fact that role of employees cannot be neglected in enhancing an organizational performance. The article has also illustrated the meta-analysis of different empirical studies carried out by Wall and Wood and Wright et al to demonstrate the relationship between HRM and organizational performance. The meta-analysis of different studies reflected a significant relationship between effective HR of an organization and its increased performance (Prowse & Prowse, 2010).
Conclusion/Findings of the Article
The main findings of the research article have been summarized in its conclusion section. The article illustrates that there has been development of different HRM techniques over time that has proved very beneficial for mangers to motivate the performance of employees. However, the evaluation of contribution of HRM to improved organizational effectiveness is rather difficult. This is due to the limitation of lack of performance measures in the literature studies available on the research topic. The systematic review of different empirical studies carried out in the research article has a specific limitation of inconsistent methodological approaches. This imposes a difficulty of testing the casual link between HRM and performance. The empirical studies used in the article mainly incorporate the use of quantitative analysis and use of longitudinal analysis is rare. The use of longitudinal analysis is recommended in the article for the purpose of examining the linkage between human resource management and organizational performance (Prowse & Prowse, 2010).
Implications for Managers/Management during Organizational Change Processes
The author in the research article though critical analysis of different literature studies demonstrated a positive impact of effective HRM on organizational performance and effectiveness. The themes discussed in the article can prove to be beneficial for the human resource managers for successful management of organizational change process. The presence of effective HRM techniques is necessary in an organization to raise the commitment level of employees (Bal et al., 2014). Increased employee commitment is essential for motivating the employees to accept the organizational changes without any resistance (Tan & Nasurdin, 2011). Organizations worldwide need to introduce changes in its structure and processes for increasing the productivity and profitability (Markovic, 2008).
The successful adaption of employees to new changes is entirely dependent on their organizational commitment level. Employee engagement is very essential at every step of organizational change process so that all employees accept the changes without any resistance (Pieterse et al., 2012). The level of employee commitment and engagement is interlinked with the HRM practices prevalent in an organization. Rewards and incentives, pay-for-performance, good working environment all have a direct impact on organizational commitment level of employees (Shaukat et al., 2015). It is the responsibility of human resource managers to motivate the employees and assessing their readiness to change. The presence of effective HRM techniques facilitates an organization to develop confidence and trust among the employees to accept the change. Thus, the research study has well-illustrated the fact that effective HRM is necessary for organizations to increase the dedication of employees to achieve its goals and objectives (Richard & Johnson, 2001).
The research study has adopted the use of literature review method for achieving its stated purpose. The selection of appropriate methodology is the main strength of the research article in context. The research topic is subjective in nature and hence can be properly analyzed through the use of literature review methodology. The article has incorporated the use of various empirical studies to achieve a specific answer for the research objective.
The lack of a proper and standardized research design is the main limitation of the research article. The research is not well-structured in absence of an effective research design and hence does not provide specific answer for the research objectives. The author needs to implement a comparative research design to analyze and examine the performance of HRM in different organizations. Also, the research study has only analyzed the effect of HRM on organizational performance only in terms of financial criteria. The impact of HRM on organizational performance related to other criteria’s is not illustrated well in the research article.
The essay has critically analyzed and examined the main themes of the research article in context. The essay has highlighted the various concepts of the research article in a systematic way.
Bal, Y. et al. (2014). Determining the influence of HRM practices on increasing organizational commitment: an empirical research from turkey. Knowledge and Learning for Quality of Life 25 (27), 1025-1033.
Cronin, P. et al. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. British Journal of Nursing 17 (1), 38-43.
Markovic, R. (2008). Effective Organizational Change Management. Serbian Journal of Management 3 (1), 119 – 125.
Pieterse, J.H. et al. (2012). Professional discourses and resistance to change. Journal of Organizational Change Management 25(6), 798 – 818.
Prowse, P. & Prowse, J. (2010). Whatever happened to human resource management performance? International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 59 (2), 145-162.
Richard, O.C. & Johnson, N.B. (2001). Strategic human resource management effectiveness and ?? firm performance. Int. J. of Human Resource Management 12(2), 299–310.
Shaukat, H. et al. (2015). Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Employees Performance. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 23 (2), 329-338.Tan, C. L. & Nasurdin, A.M. (2011). Human Resource Management Practices and Organizational Innovation: Assessing the Mediating Role of Knowledge Management Effectiveness. The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management 9 (2), 155-167.