Discuss About The Cosmopolitanism Drivers Consumer Behavior?
The report discusses the importance of understanding consumer behaviour in the marketing strategy of a company. before launching a product in a market it is necessary to know the consumer behaviour of that market. In case the organizations fail to research the features of the market and pre-analyse the response of the customers, before launching a product, they will definitely face disaster. Consumer behaviour is a complex matter as it varies from people to people, market to market and product to product. Consumers have different attitudes and mind set up before they purchase anything in the market (Zeugner-Roth, ?abkar & Diamantopoulos, 2015).
Consumer attitudes also vary in consumption and disposal of any product. Understanding the consumer attitude needs to be supported by various models and theories which strengthen the companies in comprehending the marketing concepts as well as helps them to market their product and services successfully. Moreover, these theories also help the companies judging the constantly changing market which mainly include the relentless changes in the standard of living, fashions, trends and upgradation of technology. Conceptualisation of these factors is of utmost importance because marketing and its success largely depend on these features. The report discusses the importance of customer behaviour in marketing strategy developments, various models to understand the customer behaviour and various factors that influence the consumer’s attitude in purchasing products or services.
Consumer Behaviour influencing marketing and strategy development:
Consumer behaviour aids as an essential tool for the marketers for meeting their sales aims. It refers to the attitude displayed by the censures when they decide to purchase, consume as well as dispose any specific products and services. It also includes searching for products and evaluation of the products where the customers evaluate the features of the products selected for purchase or consume. This also incorporate the consumer behaviour after the products have been purchased. This post purchase behaviour demonstrates the customer satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction where it comprises the disposal of product.
The chief purpose of marketing a product is to properly cater the demand and expectations of the customers for which the study of consumer behaviour id important. As the companies produce their products to serve their customers, the sales or marketing department of a company always keep learning the changing likes and dislikes of their customers so that they can incorporate new designs or bring upgradation according to the market demand. More vigilant analysis helps in building more exact prediction about the customer behaviour towards a particular product of service. The business managers, sales person or the marketers of the organizations get help in the following ways:
- Designing the best products or services to collectively satisfy the requirements and expectations of the customers.
- Finding best ways through which the companies will reach the customers easily.
- Deciding the best price for the products so that the customers feel convinced to purchase the products.
- Exploring the best method of advertisement or promotion that prove to be effective or beneficial for the organization to attract the customers.
- It is important to consider the reasons, perfect time, method as well as other factors to influence the buying decision of the customers.
In conceptualising the proper method of marketing needs proper knowledge of consumer behaviour in a market. It is essential for them to have proper knowledge about the expectations of the consumers as individual or groups and beside this, the method of sharing their experience for satisfying their needs. These help the marketers investigating and acquiring knowledge about the customer behaviours in a market according which they can have opportunity to position their products in the market as well as reach a specific groups or targeted individuals.
The view point of the marketers always remains to serve their basic purpose which is to sell the products or services to more people and eventually gain more profit. This concept if profit making is highly followed by almost all the companies. Previously the marketers did not have to focus in knowing their customer behaviour as people were not so much aware as they are at present. The present market study reveals that the customers first judge all the features, usage and information of products that they decide to buy. Therefore, selling a product have become more difficult as they need to have considerable features to convince the target consumers. This is the reason the marketers need to undergo correct research to win their customers over.
Models of consumer decision making:
As mentioned before, the more marketers recognise the consumer behaviour or purchasing decisions of a market the better they can design their marketing mix. The rudimentary model of customer decision making includes a 5 level process need recognition, info search, assessment of alternatives purchasing decision and post-purchase evaluation. According to the researchers, the consumers unconsciously follow this model while purchasing any product from the market.
An Economic Model
Under an economic model, the consumers make right and rational economic choices, strictly adhering to this five-step process. They allot limited resources for achieving the best value for the purchases. The customers review all the varieties available, compare the features as well as the benefits finally make logical decisions whether to purchase or not. The businessmen or the marketers of the companies aiming to appeal their consumer need to make all the possible and necessary information readily available. Comparison charts can be available in the stores or market. Additional information about the products or services must be available through the company’s web site as well as employ the well-trained staffs with ample knowledge about the products for sale.
A Passive Model
In passive model, the customers are rather irrational and take impulsive decisions. These customers are easily manipulated by advertising or promotion. Their purchasing decisions are usually based on wanting the products than needing the products (Wen et al, 2014). The companies therefore focus on generating that want through exciting advertisements that appeal to the excitements of the consumers. Extensive use of that particular products can be seen through in-store materials which call attention to the special deals thus increase impulsive buying.
A Cognitive Model
The markets have consumers who are thinking problem-solvers. It is a perfect blend of economic consumers as well as passive consumers. These people work through pre-mentioned 5 step process, yet not as strictly as the economic customers. For instance, their information findings do not always include all available information, but conclude while they acquire a comfortable understanding associated with the features and utilities of products to meet their expectations (Sharma, 2017). These type of consumers respond to the promotions based on the consumers who have received great value for money. Till they remain convinced that they are receiving a good deal, promotion and advertisements can motivate them to make the buying.
An Emotional Model
According to Consumer Behaviour experts there are some consumers who purchases based on their emotions such as fear, love, hope and joy. Many people purchase products with hope to preserve the memories of the past. The marketing experts, for instance, taps into this emotional appeal around many celebrations like the Thanksgiving or Christmas holidays and made it to roll out commercials (Cohen, Prayag & Moital, 2014). These advertisements capture the human emotions with the purchase thus create the feeling of want among the customers. These commercials do not discuss the price or features of the products but tie it to the emotions of the consumers. Thus the companies first determine what sensitive connections their targeted consumers have to the products then build their promotional agendas around it.
Influence of the internal factors:
Internal factors chiefly depend on the consumers’ personal thoughts, feelings, concepts, attitudes, motivations as well as memory. These internal factors as also known as psychological factors. They portray the means through which the customers interrelate with universe, recognize emotions, collect and evaluate the information, advance ideas thus take definite decisions (Cantallops & Salvi, 2014).
Needs and purposes: The most considerable internal impact which marks the consumers’ purchasing choice is their personal requirements as well as motives. The expectations of the consumers can be discussed either as need of something or the gap between the desired and real states. Motive is the inner state of an individual that inspires to satisfy the specific need. All desires of the consumers are impossible to outline. However, thorough noteworthy researches have classified the needs of the consumers.
By identifying the demands as well as motives of the consumers, the significant marketers get opportunity to influence the purchasing decisions of their consumers easily (Farr?Wharton, Foth & Choi, 2014). The most applicable demand identification theory that are chiefly used by the marketers in order to motivate their customers to purchase their goods is the Need Theory of Mashlow. According to this theory, the marketers are need to identify and classify the needs of their customers so that they can be easily understood and used for influencing the consumers. The nature of demands is sometimes more urgent, while another’s are less persistent. Therefore, the needs become motivating factors when they are more urgent to lead the customers to pursue satisfaction.
Understanding the demands of the markets is essential because only understanding them the marketers can direct their consumers’ needs towards their purchasing decisions. Every consumer has different requirements that may be their basic or psychological demands. Identification of the different needs of the consumers related with purchasing the products significantly assists the marketers in segmenting their target market as well as serving the consumers in most operative manner (Karimi, Papamichail & Holland, 2015).
Perception: Selection, organization and interpreting information to produce expressive experiences of world is known as perception. There are basically three diverse perceptual procedures such as selective attentions, selective alterations, selective retentions of the products or services. In case of selective attention, the marketers or sellers attempt to entice the attention of their customer. Beside this, in case of the selective distortion, the clients attempt to interpret the information in such a way which supports what the clients by now believe. Likewise, in case of the selective retention, the marketers attempt retaining information which supports the customers’’ beliefs.
Attitudes: one of the significant internal influences that affect the consumers’ buying behaviour is their attitude. It relates to what the people feel or think about something. Attitude is always mirrored in their acts and in their purchasing patterns. The study discloses that once the attitude of the people is formed, changing them is very hard (Maniatis, 2016). Therefore, if the consumers have any kind of undesirable attitude towards some specific products or issues, the marketers cannot change the customers’ belief very easily. Attitude reveals general evaluation which is long-lasting by the consumers about any products, services or companies.
The attitudes inform the marketers about their consumers as well as their present position where they establish in an overall market place. Beside knowing their customers’ demands, through identification of their attitudes the companies can gain knowledge about the perceptions with their brand or products. In the modern era, the customers are exposed to a number of commercials and information though they do not remember all of these ads. However, despite this exposure, the customers easily screen the products if they find anything opposing their own attitudes (Maity & Dass, 2014).
Learning: Attitudes of the customers are learnt as they are formed by their individual experiences and get influenced deeply by personal concepts or personality. The attitudes of the individuals and their learnings are also influenced by friends and family members supported by widespread media coverage. For functioning effectively, it is vital for the organizations to influence the consumers' learnings as well as attitudes through creating as well as establishing some effective perceptions in their minds. By means of creating a positive image in the consumers’ minds is essential for influencing their knowledge and actions. However, this can be only done by attending them efficiently in all-inclusive manners (Martins, Oliveira & Popovi?, 2014).
Personality: this varies from people to people, place to place and time to time and. It greatly influences the purchasing behaviour of the customers. Actually, personality is not reflected by one, but it reflects the entirety of conduct of individual in diverse circumstances (Sharma, 2014). Personality relates with different characteristics, for example dominance, confidence and aggression that are be useful to regulate the behaviours of the consumers towards some products or services (M?hlmann, 2015).
Influence of the external factors:
Culture: the personal values, attitudes, opinions and beliefs of an individual are moulded by his culture. Cultures form the people’s attitude towards buying some particular products and services. The culture of the customers indulges their numerous emotional demands. Due to this reason, people attempt to defend the cultural values as well as beliefs. This attempt to protect their culture is reflected in their behaviour as the consumers (Oyserman & Schwarz, 2017). Culture can develop the consumer needs and as well as also affect the satisfaction of their necessity. In this way, the culture illustrates how the customers satisfy as well as fulfil their needs in a more effective way. The eminent marketers collect huge information about the cultural values of their specific target markets by assessing their family background, value, religious establishments as well as education associations. The marketing managers of the eminent companies create messages through advertisements which are more tempting for attracting their consumers (Rani, 2014).
Social class: Each society has some types of social class which is significant for the marketing sectors as the purchasing behaviour of the people in some specific social class has been found to be quite similar. social class however, is not determined by their income, but many other factors like wealth, education and occupation. Thus marketing activities are adapted differently for different social classes (Rezaei, 2015).
Reference groups: the reference groups have all the potentials for the development of the attitudes and behaviours of the consumers. The impact of the reference groups varies across the products as well as brands. In case of the visible products the impact of the reference groups is high. Reference groups also contain opinion leaders who impress others by their special skill, knowledge and other features.
Family and friends: consumer behaviour is powerfully influenced by their family members. Therefore, the vendors always try to find the roles as well as influence of the family members to manipulate the decisions (Sagala et al., 2014). The decisions for purchasing some particular products are influenced by the eminent members whom the marketers try to target in their commercials. It is also important to note that roles of the members alters with the changing lifestyles of the consumers.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the behaviour of the consumer largely depends on the numerous factors in their lives. These can be internal elements to judge and decide before purchasing a product and the external factors also play important role in manipulating their purchase decisions. The companies previously did not have to judge the consumer behaviour in selling their products but with the change of time, the lifestyle, trends, values, attitudes and understanding have changed a lot. These act as influencer in the behaviours of the consumers. They have become more aware of the utility of their purchased products therefore, the companies need to research the market before they launch their products.
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