Contingency Model For Selection Of Decision Strategies Essay

Question:

Case study on contingency model for selection of decision strategies.

Answer:

Contingency Model for selection of decision strategies

Abstract

The primary aim of the report is to analyze different models of decision making used by the managers at workplace. First the author analyzes the contingency model for the selection of decision making strategies. It is a model that states that why the decision makers use various strategies to deal with different decision problems. Decision making requires research of techniques for improving the effectiveness of decision that it makes. The article describes a framework for examining the individual’s selection of strategies for decision making. The case study discusses the theory of contingency model and its effectiveness on decision making strategies. The author also uses variety of examples to explain the theory. The author also identifies the uniqueness of choice makers and individuality of decision strategies. The main aim of the case study is to discuss the strategy selection is dependent upon both the distinctiveness of the decision task and the uniqueness of decision maker.

Introduction

Contingency model of decision making is used in many management and organizations such as management, managerial design and participation in decision making. The choice of strategy for making decision in organizations depends on the type of problems, the surroundings and the personal characteristic of the decision maker. Motivation is the greatest element that is required to make a decision for the least asset for an acceptable solution (Chemers, 2014). The contingency model of decision making includes many stages of decision making. The first stage of contingency model is to recognize and examine the problems that the organization faces. The problem is related to the confusion and choice that is used between what is the target and goal of the company and the resources that are available in the organization to accomplish the goal and make a proper decision (Clemen & Reilly, 2013). The next stage is the evaluation stage where the main aim of the decision maker is to ask questions on what are the parameter of then problems and what knowledge should the decision makers have to solve these problems. The stage three is the selection stage where a strategy is selected to solve the problems and take a proper decision. Stage four is the information processing stage where the decision maker collects information on the strategy that it has chosen for the effective implementation of the strategy on the decision task. Stage five and six are the last or the final stage of decision making that is the actual and the final stage of the strategies. It also analyzes the choices or the alternatives that is available for the strategies. The decision making largely depends on the personal characteristics of the decision makers and decision task (Betsch & Haberstroh, 2014).

Review methodology

Different authors and writers have different views on the decision making using contingency model. There are three categories of model for decision making that is aided-analytic, unaided – analytic and non analytic. These categories involve various examples as presented by various authors. Aided analytics includes use of various mathematical logic and equations in decision making. The forecasting model in businesses helps the organization make complex decisions. Moral algebra as presented by Benjamin Franklin is widely used in organizations to make the decision. Unaided analytics is the category that identifies various problems but has no particular tool to or process to solve the problem. There is no particular pen and paper required to solve the problem but instead the calculations are done in head (Chai et al., 2013). The survey shows that third grade children use this strategy to solve the mathematical problems while adults also use this method. Authors like Tversky and Simon has presented many models to explain the decision making strategies. The non analytical strategy requires less analysis and verification and contains fair rule and tools on decision making. The main characteristics of decision task are decision making, unfamiliarity, complexity and ambiguity. The main characteristics of decision maker are information, aptitude and inspiration. Various theories and equations have been presented in the case study by the author that links task demand with the decision problems and the decision environment (Battilana & Casciaro, 2012).

Key issues

The main issue of the case study is that the real life scenarios, its problems and solutions are not given in the case study. Though the contingency model in decision making has been explained buy the author and its different stages are also well defined but the reader fails to understand when the organizations should use the theory and how it should use (Chung et al., 2012). Contingency model is a complex model in decision making model that is based on various assumptions but is not applicable in real world and organization. Stimulation of goals was the only objective of the article. The article failed to present the understanding of what the model is all about (Skinner, 2014).

Conclusion

Hence it can be concluded that decision making requires the decision makers to examine and use various strategies that is complex in nature. The contingency model of decision making is based on various assumptions and is divided into proper stages that the decision maker can use to apply the decision making tool. Various authors have presented models of the expected utility and the characteristics of decision task and environment. The various expected utility tool and the characteristic and demand of task and decision making is linked to each other. The case has many issues as well that can be solved if the strategies are properly explained.

References

Battilana, J., & Casciaro, T. (2012). Change agents, networks, and institutions: A contingency theory of organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(2), 381-398.

Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (Eds.). (2014). The routines of decision making. Psychology Press.

Chai, J., Liu, J. N., & Ngai, E. W. (2013). Application of decision-making techniques in supplier selection: A systematic review of literature. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(10), 3872-3885.

Chemers, M. (2014). An integrative theory of leadership. Psychology Press.

Chung, H. F., Lu Wang, C., & Huang, P. H. (2012). A contingency approach to international marketing strategy and decision-making structure among exporting firms. International Marketing Review, 29(1), 54-87.

Clemen, R., & Reilly, T. (2013). Making hard decisions with DecisionTools. Cengage Learning.

Govindan, K., Rajendran, S., Sarkis, J., & Murugesan, P. (2013). Multi criteria decision making approaches for green supplier evaluation and selection: a literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production.

Hwang, C. L., & Yoon, K. (2012). Multiple attribute decision making: methods and applications a state-of-the-art survey (Vol. 186). Springer Science & Business Media.

Mosadeghi, R., Warnken, J., Tomlinson, R., & Mirfenderesk, H. (2015). Comparison of Fuzzy-AHP and AHP in a spatial multi-criteria decision making model for urban land-use planning. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 49, 54-65.

Pedrycz, W., & Song, M. (2014). A granulation of linguistic information in AHP decision-making problems. Information Fusion, 17, 93-101.

Skinner, B. F. (2014). Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis(Vol. 3). BF Skinner Foundation.

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