Globalization covers a wide area of different political, economic, and cultural behaviours. This term ‘globalization’ has emerged as the top most discussed word in political and academic debates. Globalization may be seen as one that covers things like free market, the dominance by western life, and introduction of the internet. It may also be defined as the movement of labor and technology internationally. The global markets have evolved over a long period. It has assisted in promoting efficiency through international markets and this has created competition and division of labor (Arkebauer, & Miller, 2011).
However, the latest social theorists have come up with accurate concepts ofglobalization than the ones given by first theorists. But some conflicts have been witnessed about the debate on globalization. Some debaters have put it that globalization refers to the dynamics in the spatial and temporal channels of social life. Theorists differ about the correct sources of the current shifts in the social human life. However, their thoughts converge that changes in the human life, space, and duration are undermining the benefits of local and international boundaries of humanity.
History of Globalization
Globalization as a term has emerged very strongly in the last two decades. Academic workers who used the term in 1970s were accurate in recognizing the novel behind it (Modelski, 1972). Since the coming of capitalism, the intellectuals have disagreed about the process of globalization, with some advocating for it and supporting the theories that were started by people like Karl Marx while others objecting it in totality. For instance, in 1839, the English Jonourlist talked about the effects of rail travel by saying that distance has caused the surface of the country be too large (Harvey, 1996). Later, Henrich Heine also reiterated the same thought in his poet.
A German social theorist, Karl Marx in 1848, came up with the first hypothesis about the territory compression that dominated his theories. According to Karl Marx, the process of capitalism has enabled human to settle everywhere, and come up with connections everywhere (Marx, 1848).
Globalization in Contemporary Social theory
From mid 1980s, social theorists have gone above the ideas that were there in the previous thoughts about globalization in terms of compression and space to a more focused view of globalization. However, some disagreements are still existing on the accurate nature of the factors behind globalization, with some theorists like David Harvey (1989,1996) developing on Marx’s pioneering explanation of globalization, while other theorists opposing the economic inclusion of the approach by Marx. The problems caused by globalization touch on majority of philosophical questions. For instance, globalization gives a suggestion that many academic philosophers in the developed countries to pay close attention to the discriminated voices and the traditional perspectives (Dallmayr, 1998). Globalization therefore, challenges the traditional perspectives. It is true that countries cannot be described as self-sufficient because still they cannot properly deal with the effects of globalization effectively.
Globalization cannot work without the division of labour. Division of labor in this context is a case whereby people and economies focus on things they handle better. It is brought by separating assignments in any system of the economy so that those assigned may specialize in a particular area of concern. In this case, the workers will acquire special knowledge and skills in a particular area ("Division of Labour", 2012). Some economists advocated for the division of labor as a way of saving labor. Industrial revolutions era in factories saw people like Adam Smith proposing a division of labor by saying that the aspect of specialization that represents a remarkable increase in production determines the success of industrialization. According to Smith, a division of labor was the driver that changed the economic progress (Channon, 2014). Having workers carry out duties singly reduced the long training time needed to equip workers.
Globalization has evolved from several myths. It is believed that it is a rare primary factor that pushes wage moderation that is experienced in low- skilled workers. A more important factor in the growth of globalization is the technology. This will mechanize work since few people are required to handle some jobs. The demand for workers will reduce, consequently, the remuneration for workers will be affected as well (Gevurtz, & Gevurtz, 2009).
As countries have welcomed globalization and realized a remarkable increase in income, some states are objecting it from the view that it breeds failure. These countries are seen to have remained behind in terms of development. It is believed that through globalization, some individuals have benefited than others. This brings conflict between the developed countries and the less developed ones. Third world countries are reluctant to enter into the international trade because of fear of manipulation by the ‘big’ countries (Kressel, & Lento, 2012). They are worried that their businesses may be swallowed and render them financially useless.
The disparity between countries has brought inequality in terms of income earning and social status. Underdeveloped countries find it hard to acquire the latest technology to enable them to carry out their operations as well as competing with the global market giants favorably. The market giants with their powerful technology and tools dominate, frustrate, and kill the upcoming competitors. Over a few decades ago, the income inequality among countries has gone up in most countries. Consequently, income per capita has gone up in almost all countries including the poor ones (Kressel, & Lento, 2014). This shows that the poor countries are coming up and will be a better position to take the challenge of global business and start making business ties with their global counterparts. Although the income for the ‘giant’ countries have risen so much above that of developing countries, they can start building proper relationships to indulge in partnerships and businesses.
Apart from income inequality realized by different countries, a research also reveals that there is an inequality that exists between the rich and poor populations in different parts of the world. It is believed that globalization is directly linked to a reduction in inequality. Financial inequality is seen to have been caused by the advances made in technology, and foreign investment the demand for the skilled workers thereby raising the return to skills in both developed and underdeveloped countries (Nash, 2000). Thus, while everybody benefits, the skilled ones benefit most.
Entry of firms to global market forced some of them to showcase their superior technologies and powerful brands in order to integrate their systems and organize themselves to indulge in the global market and target to target the middle and upper- income earners. The big marketers mainly target the upper-income clients and they are capable of controlling the world in terms of purchasing and a large share of global market belong to them. The competition thus may become so stiff for the small marketers and this may make them disappear in the limelight of global business. Unless a policy is enacted and put in place to regulate their manipulation power, developing countries may find it too difficult to realize and appreciate the benefits of the global business (Mortimer, 2016).
The entry to global market faces not only a fierce competition by the developed countries but also have great difficulties in catching up with the global trends that have been taken by the ‘old marketers’ called the systems integrators. These firms are so powerful that they have occupied the whole market as they command almost all the supplies and manufacturing sectors. The global market is therefore termed as a very competitive environment that requires proper understanding before one enters into it (Simpson, 2016). The recent period has witnessed an increased level of competition in the global market. Big companies have focused in research based on conditions prevailing in the global markets.
Division of labor in this context is a case whereby people and economies focus on things they handle better. It is brought by separating assignments in any system of the economy so that those assigned may specialize in a particular area of concern. In this case, the workers will acquire special knowledge and skills in a particular area. Some economists advocated for the division of labor as a way of saving labor. This division of labor is what has made globalization be successful (Undertake business planning, 2007). Countries are thus able to involve and focus in areas that they are well conversant in. It is this approach that social scientists have argued to try to look at barriers to effective global business. Although globalization has several positive impacts on country global businesses, it has been widely criticized by others as a hindrance as well to the development of some underdeveloped countries. Such developed countries have experienced stiffer competition because they lack proper technological strength and workforce. It is, therefore, important to first put proper structures in place in order to combat the challenges that may come along with it.
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