According to Lowry et al.(2013), Whistle blowing refers to the situation where a person discloses a particular activity in the organization which is illegal or unethical. The exposure of wrongdoing will impact the public interest so the disclosure of the incident will not affect the individual who is protected by law. The events that are counted, as whistle blowing are as follows any criminal offense, issues related to health and safety, damage to the environment when the company or a person violates a law or involves in misconduct. Since 1960, the value of whistle-blowing is getting increased. The government has enacted regulations to protect the whistleblowers and whistle blowing policy on the ground of public interest. According to Federal, False claims act the whistle blower will be rewarded for bringing the lawsuit against the company for involving in illegal activity against the government.
A recent survey has revealed that the percentage of men whistle blowers are comparatively higher than the women whistle blowers for misconduct and one of the reasons behind it is that men are accused of gaining financial benefit for whistle blowing. Since the year 2000, the percentage has increased the number of women participants have been raised who played an active role in whistle blowing and not influenced by fame and fortune.
The vice president at Enron Corporation Sherron Watkins has informed the company's board of directors that Enron's Accounting practices are wrong that later bring Enron's major collapse and the company has become bankrupt. In the same year Coleen Rowley a FBI staff who is working for more than 20 years written a letter to FBI Director Robert Mueller mentioning that FBI's national headquarters has mishandled an investigation of Zacarias Moussaoui, who was later accused of one of the conspirators' on September 11, 2001. Rowley then explained before Senate about the accusations and the harsh treatment that Rowley has undergone. It has supported the fact that the ratios of women participants are increasing as whistleblowers and are driven by their sheer sense of responsibility and not to achieve any personal gain (Miceli et al. 2012).
The recent exposure of details of NSA surveillance programs is possible by a single whistleblower, Edward Snowden. He has revealed the shameful act of US Government to public knowledge. NSA has been accessed of collecting the huge amount of data from data collection and spying the network on non-US citizens and some personal interaction of US citizens. It has been done without any valid reason Moreover the entire system is operated under a warrant system where a special secret court handles the situation and approves procedures for mass surveillance without any argument by any other party. The orders allow monitoring and storage of data of NSA analyst. Snowden has charged by US Government for stealing the documents and his disclosure of the incident. Glenn Greenwald, the leading journalist, has been accused of committing the crime for publishing the leaked materials. The controversy centered on Snowden, who has disclosed Government's illegal activity by stealing the documents and therefore revealing the activities to secret agencies. So the question is whether Snowden has violated ethical standard or his act is ethically right. Whereas it claims that the government’s permission is required who is the legitimate owner of the contents (Lee and Fargher 2013).
Whistle blowing and ethically obligation
It involves revelation of illegal act or misconduct that sometimes leads to the disclosure of secret information which includes the revelation of an incident to the general public or publication. When the whistleblower is disclosing some information, which they are not supposed to reveal as per statutory obligations. In such a situation whistle blowing is regarded as a breach of law or violation of ethics. When confidentiality is a legitimate part of a contract, and the person violates the privacy, it is considered a breach of contract or violation of ethics (Jones and Kelly 2014).
Maximize internal and minimize external Whistle blowing
As far as the external, whistle blowing to media and Government agencies brings hazards for both the individual and organization. As their whistle blowing can influence the employment of the whistleblower. As a result, they may feel separated, avoided by co-workers, and includes more supervision. Because of the damages, the organization faces from external whistle blowing leads it to takes measures to maximize internal whistle blowing by ensuring best practices to stimulate employees to protest against unethical practices in the organization before the situation gets deteriorated (Alleyne et al. 2013). By focusing on internal whistle blowing the team, encourage the employees to bring the unethical or illegal matters to inherent authority so that immediate action can be taken to resolve the issues.
It also minimizes damages in the organization when an employee can resort to the internal system of whistle blowing; it also highlights the organization’s obedience to the code of conduct. The team is trying to make the internal system more trustworthy by removing such preconceived notions like fear of counter attack, non-cooperation from colleagues, and lack of faith in management to ensure more active participation of whistleblowers, therefore, implementing more adherences to the corporate code of conducts. The top management also has taken a policy to support whistle blowing to create an atmosphere of openness and trust by involving the line managers who are trained to create an environment that promotes ethical behavior. They can arrange reward and recognition programs to encourage more employees to participate in highlights ethical issues (Finke and Dannwolf 2013).
Alleyne, P., Hudaib, M. and Pike, R., 2013. Towards a conceptual model of whistle-blowing intentions among external auditors. The British Accounting Review, 45(1), pp.10-23.
Finke, D. and Dannwolf, T., 2013. Domestic scrutiny of European Union Politics: Between whistleblowing and opposition control. European Journal of Political Research, 52(6), pp.715-746.
Jones, A., and Kelly, D., 2014. Whistle?€ђblowing and workplace culture in older peoples' care: qualitative insights from the healthcare and social care workforce. Sociology of health & illness, 36(7), pp.986-1002.
Lee, G., and Fargher, N., 2013. Companies' use of whistle-blowing to detect fraud: An examination of corporate whistle-blowing policies. Journal of business ethics, 114(2), pp.283-295.
Lowry, P.B., Moody, G.D., Galletta, D.F. and Vance, A., 2013. The drivers in the use of online whistle-blowing reporting systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(1), pp.153-190.
Miceli, M.P., Near, J.P., Rehg, M.T. and Van Scotter, J.R., 2012. Predicting employee reactions to perceived organizational wrongdoing: Demoralization, justice, proactive personality, and whistle-blowing. Human relations, 65(8), pp.923-954.