Complexity And Measurement Scientific Progress Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Complexity and Measurement Scientific Progress.

Answer:

Introduction

The main purpose of this particular report is to assert the various ways in which climate changes have predicted, affected and impacted a certain city in our country. The city of choice upon which report is analyzed is Pentagon in the USA. There are many climatic aspects that have led to certain impacts to the city of Pentagon. The climatic changes in this regard include wind, temperature, humidity, sea levels and changes in precipitation. This report will also indicate the social impacts associated to the above climatic changes and finally try to integrate the various regional considerations that include water supply, food supplies and movement of refugees from one region to another. For the purpose of the audience of this report and mo so the clarity, climate change refers typically as a change in global and regional climatic patterns associated to the various climatic components such as wind, humidity, temperature, altitude, seal level and changes in the precipitation levels. Pentagon city has a consistent increase in population for the last decade (Mathez & Smerdon 2009). The climate of Pentagon is warm and sunny. The climate of a city or a region refers to its average weather. The average of all the world’s regional climates may be referred as earth’s climate. Other scholars define climate change as change in the average or typical weather of a city or region (Romm 2015). Climate changes also involves change in earth’s overall climate. For instance, a change in earth’s typical precipitation patterns and change in earth’s average temperature.

Therefore, this report will be a case study in the future on how to control the effects of climatic changes on such similar cities. Therefore this report lays down a platform for solutions on climatic changes and also offers a space on further research relating to similar cases.

Climatic changes affecting Pentagon city.

Just like other cities in the USA, there are several climate change aspects that can used in this report. The ways in which climate change is predicted to impact upon the city will draw various recommendations on how to save the city. These climate change aspects include wind, temperature, humidity, Sea level and changes in precipitation.

For the purpose of this report, precipitation refers to condition that occur when increase in temperature makes the air warmer thus increasing the evaporation of moisture from land to water into the atmosphere. Therefore as moisture increase, rain and snow are expected in form of a precipitation. From the recent years Pentagon experienced more precipitations than before due to climate changes that causes shifts in ocean and air currents thus changing weather patterns in the city. Changes in precipitation has a significant impact on climate of Pentagon. Under this section, we investigate precipitation impacts on the city based on population growth and the trends in precipitations. These two aspects have a statistical relationship. We found out there is a perfect positive correlation between precipitation changes and population growth in the city. Thus, population growth in the city has a perfect positive correlation with precipitation trend (Maslin 2014). During summer quarters when small-scale convection activities are dominant, the positive correlation tend to rise and has been demonstrated not once but times without numbers that correlation tend to rise significantly when city stations are excluded. Therefore, the discussion relationship is nonlinear between precipitation and impact on the city.

The prediction on the impact of changes in precipitation on Pentagon city is that precipitation is expected to increase due to higher latitudes. Therefore pentagon city will become wetter. In this case, too much water can be a major problem. Although a lot of people depend on snowmelt and rain in filling streams and lakes, provision of water for watering crops, drinking and other utilities, it is important to note that heavy rains causes flooding that have a set of negative impacts (Klein 2015). In summary, the major impacts of changing snow patterns and rain on people and environment surrounding Pentagon city will be effect on agriculture, water supplies, forests, recreation facilities, energy, plants, animals and the entire ecosystems.

The impact of sea level on pentagon will depend on whether it is an increase or decrease on sea levels. However, we found out that Pentagon has experienced an increase in sea level over the last two decades. It is important to note that primarily, sea level tend to rise due to two major aspects related to global warming (King 2017). The two factors are one, the glaciers and wide expansion of sea waters as it warms and two, the water added from melting ice sheets and glaciers. For the purpose of the audience of this report, sea level can be typically defined as increase or decrease in water volumes in the earth’s oceans that results to rise or decrease in global mean sea level respectively. Pentagon city has an increase in sea level and this has certain predictive impacts on the people and the environment surrounding the city (Schuetz 2016). The predictive impact on rise in sea level on the city is that the sea level is rising and thus creates a problem. Due to increase in sea levels, Pentagon city is on the higher scale of risk of being flooded and being destroyed. This is due to increase in the sea levels that makes the land to sink (Dodds 2014). There are various isostatic rebounds that affect the city which tend to rise above the normal sea level. This also led to erosion at concerning rates (Incropera 2015). Increase in sea level will bring destruction of the city since it is located on east coast of the USA. This lowers the supply of water and food to the residents of the city in the long run.


Geographically, humidity refers to the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. There is a perfect positive correlation between humidity and pollution in the sense that, there is relative low humidity in cities with low level of pollution and a relative high humidity in cities with high level of pollution (Steger 2013). Pentagon as a city has a low level of pollution due to the acute measures that have been impacted by government and the residents. When the air become warmer, their capacity to hold moisture increases proportionately (Chang 2007). That why many cities tend to be warmer as compared to the rural areas. The impact of humidity on the city can be positive or negative. The important part is that the relative humidity provide a cohesive weather condition for people to work from. However, due to increasing population in the city, the level of humidity is expected to rise. Higher level of humidity has adverse effects on human beings. Is actually lower the effectiveness of sweating that bring body cooling. This is brought by reduced rate of evaporation of body moisture from the skin. This effected has been calculated by experts in scales called humidex and heat index (Boit & Carter 2015). Finally, humidity also affects the energy budget that in return affect temperatures. This causes the greenhouse effect. This will limit the movement of refugees due to the assumption that increase in population increases pollution which finally increase humidity.

Geographically, wind can be defined as moving air. The impact of wind on cities can be devastating especially where very strong tides of moving air are blown in huge scales. Pentagon city has many skyscrapers that can have negative implication of strong wind. Therefore, the knowledge of wind climate in such cities has a huge application (Bloombery & Pope 2017). Strong winds can cause huge destruction of tall building that can cause loss of property and lives. This strong winds causes the impairment of listening in the cities with huge population. The other effect wind to cities is the transmission of toxic gaseous which have been emitted. This affect human activities in the city and may cause diseases association to air pollution in the cities (Schuetz 2016). Pentagon city may face problem associated to disasters caused by wind. Food and water supply may be affected as a result.


Temperature has major effects on cities. Extreme temperatures has effects table water surface. This lower supply of water in the city. In the recent times temperature caused low food supply due to drought. It is estimated that by 2050, urban surface areas are expected to expand in Pentagon by three times (Allen 2011). There is less evaporation when the sun lowers and this makes green roofs fail to cool. The world global temperature on earth are increasing by 0.8 degree (Schmidt 2008). Therefore the impact on the city is that, temperature will make the city to undergo change in the global warming. However, optimum temperature changes are better in the development of cities because many tourists visit the city during winter at their place of residence.

Social impact of climate changes in the city.

  1. Lowers the movement of refuges from one region to another so as to avoid challenges associated to overpopulation.
  2. This may lower the supply of food and water to the residents of the city.
  3. Strong wind may bring the destruction of skyscrapers that may cause destruction of property and loss of lives.
  4. Extreme temperatures lowers the water table that minimize the amount of rains in the region thus affecting the food and water supply.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is important for all the stakeholders to check the effects of the various climatic changes in the cities so also to set the various mechanisms to lower the negative impacts and embrace positive impacts. Finally, this report provide a platform for further study probably the predictive impacts of climate changes to the rural areas.

References

Allen, RC 2011, Global Economic History: A Very Short Introduction, OUP Oxford.

Bloombery, M & Pope, C 2017, Climate of Hope: How Cities, Businesses, and Citizens Can Save the Planet, St. Martin Press.

Boit, A & Carter, R 2015, climate change: The Facts, Stockade Books.

Chang, H 2007, Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress, Oxford University Press.

Dodds, K 2014, Geopolitics: A Very Short Introduction 2/e, OUP Oxford.

Incropera, FP 2015, Climate Change: A Wicked Problem: Complexity and Uncertainty at the Intersection of Science, Economics, Politics and Human Behavior, Cambridge University Press.

King, SD 2017, Grave New World: the End of Globalization, the Return of History, Yale University Press.

Klein, N 2015, this Change Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate, Penguin.

Maslin, M 2014, Climate Change: A very short introduction 3/e, OUP Oxford.

Maslin, M 2008, Global Warming: A very Short Introduction, OUP Oxford.

Mathez, E & Smerdon, J 2009, Climate Change: the Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press.

Romm, J 2015, Climate Change: What Every One Need to Know, Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, G 2008, Climate Change Picturing the Science, W.W.Norton & Company.

Schuetz, K 2016, Humidity, Bellwether Media.

Steger, M 2013, Globalization: A Very Short Introduction 3/e, OUP Oxford.

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