Competitive Advantage Of Food Court Operation Essay

Questions:

1.Cover the theory of quantitative, qualitative and hybrid designs?
2.How you intend to collect your data. For example, on-site researcher-filled-in survey for quantitative or/and focus group discussion for qualitative research?
3.Sample selection: Relate to theory like Neuma's Theory for quantitative survey?
4.Identify technique to analyse taped focus group discussion. You should be looking at softwares and thematic analysis techniques?
5.Ethical considerations: Relate to your data collection methods and highlight the concerns?

Answers:

Introduction

Competitive advantage can be regarded as a condition or circumstance that positions a particular corporation in a desirable and bigger business position (Baker and Sinkula, 2015). Particularly, it is important to have a competitive advantage as this can be considered as a leverage that a particular business can have over other competitors in the market.

Particularly, competitive advantage can be regarded as an important factor that is essential for two different types, namely, cost advantage as well as differentiation advantage (Denrell and Powell, 2016). Therefore, the food court operators in Singapore need to design different competitive business strategy for gaining a competitive edge in the market. Management of corporations needs to be aware of diverse resources as well as organizational objectives that present distinctive competencies for obtaining competitive advantage and for the creation of value.

1.Research Design

Quantitative strategies strain target estimations and the real, scientific, or numerical investigation of facts gathered thru surveys, polls, and research, or by means of controlling preceding measurable statistics making use of computational methods. Quantitative studies concentrate on social occasion numerical facts and summing it up crosswise over gatherings of people or to clarify a particular venture (Gauch, 2013).

The goal in directing quantitative studies take a look at is to determine the connection among one thing (an independent variable) and the other (dependent variable) inside a population. Quantitative studies plans are both graphic [subjects typically measured once] or trial [subjects measured previously, then after the fact a treatment]. An enlightening evaluates units up simply the connection among elements; a test take a look at builds up causality. Quantitative studies deal in numbers, intent, and an intention function. Quantitative research concentrates on numeric and steady statistics, and point through point united thinking in place of distinct wondering, i.e., the generation of an assortment of mind concerning a research problem in an unconstrained, loose-streaming manner (Lawrence, 2011).

However, the phrase qualitative shows an accentuation at the traits of materials and on procedures, what's more, ramifications that are not probably investigated or measured (if measured by any means) as a path as the sum, entirety, constrain, or reiteration. Subjective analysts push the socially created nature of the reality, the non-open association between the scientist and what's considered, and the situational goals that shape ask. Such scientists spotlight the regard stacked nature of a demand. They scan for answers for request that pressure how social experience is made and given significance. Evidently, quantitative audits underscore the estimation and research of causal associations between components, not administration. Subjective assortments of demand are mulled over by methods for various social and behavioral specialists to be as a decent arrangement a point of view on the best way to technique exploring a studies trouble as it's far a method (Howell, 2013).


The qualitative research scene is perpetually changing and is brimming with new chances to grasp advanced strategies and reexamine and revive face to face techniques. Notwithstanding, an ideal venture configuration is regularly a hybrid approach as a couple of techniques can convey the ideal arrangement alone. In this case, joining techniques can give the most astute outcomes. A hybrid approach can be a blend of various qualitative methodologies, or it can be a mix of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Below is a summary, borrowed from Joubish, (2009), as to why a research design ought to be a hybrid one:

  1. There are diverse goals attained through various methodologies
  2. There are different exercises for a similar target
  • A project manager needs both in-the-minute criticism and responses after some time
  1. A project manager needs specific criticism and group communication in cooperation
  2. A project manager arranges a detailed procedure.

2. Data Collection Methods

The choice of technique is tormented by the records amassing system, the kind of thing, the precision required, the accumulation factor and the capacity of the enumerator. Interfaces among a variable, its supply and viable techniques for its accumulation can assist in choosing appropriate techniques. According to Berg (2009), the number one records accumulation techniques are:

  1. Registration: registers and licenses are especially profitable for end list, yet are restricted by factors that alternate gradually, for instance, portions of meals courts and their attributes.
  2. Surveys: shapes which can be finished and returned by respondents. A reasonable method that is treasured wherein schooling rates are excessive and respondents are co-agent.
  • Interviews: frames which can be finished through an assembly with the respondent. Dearer than polls, yet they are better for greater unpredictable inquiries, low education or less co-operation.
  1. Observations: making direct estimations is the maximum unique method for a few elements but is frequently pricey. Several strategies, as an instance, spectator projects, are confined to enterprise requirements.
  2. Reporting: the principle contrasting option to making direct estimations is to require fishers and others to document their physical games. Revealing calls for education and cooperation, but, may be supported via a lawful necessity and direct estimations.

A sign in is a storehouse of statistics on businesses, gadgets, and licenses. It is able to be utilized to collect end specification via a lawful necessity. Registers are actualized when there may be a demand for exact statistics on the dimensions and kind of the undertaking force and for near checking of physical activities to guarantee consistency. They will likewise consolidate records diagnosed with monetary purposes (for instance, issuance or recuperation of licenses). Despite reality that registers are typically finished for capacities separated from to accumulate certainties, they might be to a great degree prized in the arrangement and utilization of a quantifiable system, gave that the data they join are steady, promising and complete (Creswell, 2011).


A registry need to include new facts as well as have the potential to show that a selected document is dormant (for instance, a corporation has stopped operations) or file modifications in procedures (perhaps a venture's overseeing confine has extended). At the off hazard that licenses must be reestablished every year, data assembled from approving organizations is particularly helpful, as records are invigorated each year (Patton, 2012).

Registry information likewise includes criteria for the grouping of units into strata. These arrangements are normally in view of presumptions and from the sooner studying on differences in prices. With the aid of and huge, registers are unpredictable frameworks requiring entrenched regulatory structures strengthened with the aid of compelling information correspondences, information stockpiling, and handling segments. In that potential, they transcendently control simply sure types and length of devices, regularly having a place with business and semi-business armadas. Small-scale and subsistence units along with sizable quantities of angling devices are regularly no longer some portions of a sign-up framework or, if enlisted, aren't effortlessly followed that allows you to allow approval or clean.

In interviews, information is received via application and documented by enumerators. Prepared interviews are done through using evaluation settings, although open interviews are transcripts fetched whilst speaking to the cluster of respondents. The notes are on this way prepared (decoded) for additional examination. Open-ended interviews, which should be deciphered and investigated notwithstanding amid the assembly, must be completed via all round prepared spectators and additionally enumerators.

On the other hand, with interviews, where an enumerator offers conversation starters straightforwardly, questionnaires allude to shapes filled in with the aid of respondents alone. Questionnaires can be given out or dispatched through mail and later collected or back to sender. This technique can be acquired for the complete population or inspected divisions (Creswell, 2013).

3.Sample Selection

The subject choice is critical for arranging a research project. A researcher has to consider how he/she will pick a cluster. For some research projects, there will be just a few individuals inside a research population, in which case it may be conceivable to contact everybody. This is known as statistics. In any case, for most projects, unless there are a gigantic spending plan, boundless timescale and a vast group of questioners, it will be hard to address each individual inside the research population (Soeters et al, 2014).

The population is the total of items, people or occasions which meet a predefined set of criteria on which the research is summed up. Researchers beat this issue of generalization/summing up by picking a littler, more reasonable number of individuals to participate in their research. This is called sampling. It clarifies what is going on inside a gathering of individuals. According to Franklin (2012), choice of subjects from a population depends on:

  1. Integration standards
  2. Prohibition standards

After utilization of integration criteria and prohibition criteria, the target population is to be taken in study e.g. in the investigation of the yearly demise rate of under 5-year-old youngsters because of looseness of the bowels, kids under 5 years of age are the target population (entire nation).

Figuring the most suitable sample size is a critical stride in the examination procedure. A bigger sample gives a more exact gauge of the "genuine" circumstance yet the advantages of expanded sample size get littler as you close to the aggregate population. Consequently, there is an exchange off between sample accuracy and contemplations of ideal asset utilize. There are no 'dependable guidelines' when deciding sample size for quantitative research. It is impractical to state whether 10% of the population, for example, would give a sufficient sample, as this will be influenced by various elements. You ought to be careful about sample arranges in research or assessments that propose sample size can be computed utilizing a rate of the population without further elucidation or basis for this. (Silverman, 2011)

Analysts will figure sample size utilizing a scope of various conditions, each of which is proper for various research circumstances and settings. It is critical to talk about the goals of your exploration, expected outcomes, information sorts, assets and setting with an analyst or specialized guide at the planning phase of your examination keeping in mind the end goal to compute a proper sample (Guba & Lincoln, 2013).

It is additionally helpful to comprehend the two principle insights, which will be utilized to ascertain the sample size. These are the provisional confidence or margin of error and the confidence level. In this paper, the target population would be 500 food courts in Singapore. Out of that 500, only 10% would form the sample.

4. Data Analysis Techniques

A large number of programming projects intended for use with quantitative information is accessible today, and they are recommended for automated data analysis (Herrman, (2010). Quantitative research, prevalently measurable examination, is as yet regular in the sociologies and such programming is habitually utilized among sociology analysts. Most strikingly, measurable bundles discover applications in the sociologies. The fundamental request made of such bundles in sociology research is that they be complete, adaptable, and can be utilized with a record. A valuable factual programming device can produce organized reports, outlines, and plots of dispersions and patterns, and in addition, create elucidating insights and more intricate measurable investigations. Ultimately, a User Interface (UI) that makes it simple and natural for all levels of clients is an absolute necessity (Nida et al, 2011).

While unmistakably to begin with at home in without a doubt qualitative research, a powerful and adaptable application like Atlas.ti can likewise create quantitative facts and has an immediate fact switch to SPSS, the most mainstream factual quantitative programming bundle. Additionally, the probability to absolutely trade expand brings approximately the all-inclusive open xml information design (xml data may result easily and redesigned to be practical in a huge wide variety of customers). Overall, Atlas.ti is remarkably perfect for current mixed strategy strategies (Washington et al, 2010).

5. Ethical Considerations

Bias in sampling may possibly happen if choices are made about sample determination that implies that a few people have a more noteworthy possibility of being chosen for the sample than others. Sample inclination is a noteworthy flopping in an examination plan and can prompt to uncertain, untrustworthy outcomes. There are distinctive sorts of inclination. For instance, landing area inclination identifies with the tendency to review those towns that are effortlessly open by street.

Concluding Remarks

In the event that both quantitative and qualitative information have been gathered a researcher ought to thoroughly analyze these discoveries when translating the work. The reconciliation of quantitative and qualitative research can give us a more extensive comprehension of our exploration subject. Quantitative research can depict size and appropriation of progress, for example, though qualitative research gives an inside and out comprehension of the social, political and social setting.

Blended techniques of examining permits us to triangulate discoveries, which can fortify the legitimacy, what's more, augment the utility of our work. A researcher ought to likewise think about your discoveries in contrast with other research or assessment work in the range and consider whether discoveries were comparative.

References

Baker, W. E., and Sinkula, J. M., (2015) Maintaining Competitive Advantage Through Organizational Unlearning. Proceedings of the 1999 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 206-209). Springer International Publishing

Berg, Bruce L., (2009) Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Seventh Edition. Boston MA: Pearson Education Inc.

Creswell, J. (2011) Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. (2013) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Denrell, J. and Powell, T., (2016) Dynamic Capability as a Theory of Competitive Advantage, Contributions, and Scope Conditions.

Franklin, M. I. (2012) Understanding Research: Coping with the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide. London and New York: Routledge.

Gauch, Hugh G., Jr. (2013) The Scientific Method in Practice, Cambridge University Press

Guba, E. and Lincoln, Y. (2013) Fourth Generation Evaluation. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.

Herrman, C. S. (2010) Fundamentals of Methodology, a series of papers On the Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN), online.

Howell, K. E. (2013) Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology. London: Sage Publications.

Joubish, Farooq Dr. (2009) Educational Research Department of Education, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan

Lawrence W. Neuman (2011) Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 7th Edition, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater

Nida, E. Alana, Slater, T. and Bucknam, A. (2011) Action Research for Business, Nonprofit, and Public Administration - A Tool for Complex Times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Patton, M. Q. (2012) Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Silverman, David (Ed). (2011) Qualitative Research: Issues of Theory, Method and Practice, Third Edition. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi, Singapore: Sage Publications

Soeters, J.; Shields, P. and Rietjens, S. (2014) Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies, New York: Routledge.

Washington, B. L., Cunningham, C. J. L., and Pittenger, D.P. (2010) Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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