This essay highlights the significance of social inclusion and primary healthcare facilities for the patients suffering from the HIV. Due to ignorance about the cause, spread and prevention technique of the disease, the patients suffering from HIV are excluded and are restricted to obtain their basic rights. Due to this ignorance in the society, the people suffering from the HIV hesitate to avail medical facilities thereby, leading to death. The use of primary healthcare facilities can be used for spreading awareness about the disease and ways of protecting and preventing it. The knowledge spread by the primary healthcare services will help in eradicating the negligence faced by the HIV patients.
At certain instances, the society blocks and avoids some groups of people intentionally based on particular perspectives. They group of people are denied access to various rights, resources and opportunities easily accessible and available to other people in the society. Excluding some people from the society intentionally and denying them their rights is defined as social exclusion (Baral et al., 2013). For example, people suffering from HIV are socially excluded, as most of the people think the disease spreads by touching. The ignorance about HIV is what leads to the social exclusion of the people suffering from the disease (Tsai et al., 2013). Though diagnosing of HIV because of the retrovirus, the disease is curable if treated on time. As there prevails so much hatred about the individual and their family suffering from HIV, the patients fear to visit the healthcare clinics for treatment. Once the society comes to know about an individual suffering from HIV, the individual, and their families are humiliated, denied their rights, resources and opportunities lead to social exclusion of the entire family. At certain instances, the individuals suffering from HIV are also denied accurate and appropriate medical and healthcare facilities thereby, deteriorating their health (Gayner et al., 2012).
As it is known that treatment and appropriate medical facilities can treat HIV, awareness emphasizing this aspect is spread in the society. This is spread with the agenda and aim that people suffering from HIV will come up to avail medical facilities without hesitation for getting treatment. In addition, the awareness program aim towards providing knowledge to the society about the disease in order to prevent out casting of the individuals suffering from HIV (Eldredge et al., 2016).
Primary health care is defined as the essential components of the healthcare system by using scientifically proven and accepted technologies for treating the society and the people. The cost of the primary healthcare treatment is affordable so that the service is easily accessible and available for the entire community. Primary health care emphasizes on medical treatments beyond the traditional methods of treatment. The main aim of primary health care is to reduce the rate of social exclusion that individuals encounter thereby, hampering them to access healthcare association (WHO, 2012). Therefore, primary healthcare aim towards providing healthcare services regardless of the social disparities within the society. For example, primary healthcare is significant for the HIV patients, as this will allow them to access medical facilities for treatment regardless of the social disparities. Primary health care also emphasizes on organizing and conducting health services at a regular interval in order to keep the promotional activities active (Kim, Farmer & Porter, 2013).
Equal distribution of healthcare facilities: Individuals suffering from HIV encounters social exclusion to the extent that the society denies the patients access to their rights and opportunities along with restricting them from accessing healthcare facilities for treatment. Therefore, this element under ALMA ATA declaration will allow the HIV patients to access medical facilities and continue their treatment (Hogerzeil et al., 2013).
Participation of the community: Community participation is another significant aspect of ALMA ATA declaration, as this allows complete access to national and local healthcare services for the patients (Zablotska, Holt & Prestage, 2012).
Developing healthcare workforce: The adequate number of trained physicians, healthcare professionals, and community health workers are required to continue appropriate and accurate primary healthcare.
Technological use: In order to treat the patients suffering from HIV, the primary healthcare needs to use latest technological advances for treating the patients. This will provide better diagnoses of diseases followed by better treatment and health improvement (Free et al., 2013).
HIV is a growing problem in today’s world. True that in these cases, the symptoms appear late and the diagnosis is delayed but still if treated at an earlier stage can be stopped. The most vulnerable victims of HIV are those who practice homosexuality especially males, transgender people, sex workers and drug addicts (Silva-Santisteban et.al. 2012). They are the soft targets because HIV viruses 1 and 2 usually are transmitted through the pre ejaculation fluid, semen, vaginal fluid and contaminated syringes. Contamination of syringes may occur in hospitals. Poor drug addicts often find it as a cheap source to replace the costly needles with these cheap sources of a needle and thus have a high source of contamination hazard. Unprotected sexual intercourse is another factor that triggers of the hazards of being infected by HIV. The situation is worse in the developing and the under developed countries of especially the Equatorial belts. People here are unaware and many die due to the lack of medication. Kenya is the only country in the Sub Saharan Africa with the records of a number of people affected with HIV being kept at Mombasa, the capital (World Health Organisation 2012).
The primary reason for the spread of HIV is unprotected sexual intercourse or sodomy. The most vulnerable ones are those who practice homosexuality or man-to-man sex. Homosexuality is a taboo even in today’s educated society. The religious institutions of the world consider same sex intercourse as a sin. Most of the people in today’s world are literate but they are not educated. In some countries, the correct figures of those suffering from HIV are not clearly specified. Men who have sex with men are at major risk of contracting the diseases such as HIV because the viruses are mainly found in the pre ejaculation fluid and in the semen. In spite of the fact that this disease is curable, many people fail to open up and succumb to their beliefs.
The most important fact is they suffer due to the greater society’s homophobia and heterosexism for which they cannot open up and get themselves treated for the disease that they are suffering from. HIV is the most hyped taboo of the society. Often these patients are left untreated and the majority of them die due to negligence. Even the families of the patients tend to disown them once they are tested positive for HIV. Majority of the people suffering from HIV loose the urge to live and ultimately perish away.
Transgender group of people is 49 times more vulnerable to HIV infection than compared to normal people. Out of the total people infected with HIV 19% of the people, belong to the transgender female category. Social exclusion, gender-based abuse, high levels of discrimination and stigma – these are the reasons for which the transgender people are at a higher risk of HIV infection. The transgender people are removed from the society at a young age and receive less or no education; face discrimination at work and while availing basic goods and services (Harisson and Herman 2012).
India leads in transgender sex workers with 90% followed by Malaysia 84%, Indonesia 81%, El Salvador 47% and Cambodia 36% (Baral et.al.2012). HIV prevalence is up to 9 times higher for transgender sex workers as compared to non-transgender female sex workers often the customers of the transgender community who are mostly into prostitution are not healthy people and they fall prey to the HIV virus. Lack of knowledge about People think that it is discriminatory to stop the people of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender communities more commonly known as the LGBT communities to donate blood, the actual reason behind this is that the people of this specified community indulge themselves in kinds of erotic sexual activities, which are not always healthy. These people are the foremost carriers of the HIV virus (Genz et.al. 2015).
Due to the ignorance among the people in the society about HIV, the patients encounter social exclusion and cannot access appropriate treatment for health improvement. In the global scenario and Australia, it can be seen that the patients suffering from HIV die due to lack of medical treatment, as they never visited the medical facilities. As one of the interventions for treating and spreading awareness about HIV is through primary healthcare, other medical interventions can also be used for treating the patients suffering from HIV. The nursing interventions will thereby, help in spreading awareness about the real cause of HIV, ways of preventing HIV and methods of HIV treatment.
Health promotion is one of the key nursing interventions that help in mitigating the social exclusion that majority of the HIV patients suffer (Curran et al., 2012). Organizing and conducting health promotions will spread awareness about HIV within the society. The main aim of the health promotions is to imbibe the knowledge within the people that HIV does not spread by touching. If the aforementioned thought is eradicated from the society, treating HIV patients will be much easier. HIV patients’ encounters social exclusion, as the society feel the disease spreads by touching. Moreover, the health promotions can also be conducted with the aim of spreading awareness regarding how HIV is spread, methods of preventing the spread of HIV along with the effectiveness of the medical intervention for treating HIV.
However, as argued by Street, Gold & Manning (2013), individual counseling is a better option to spread awareness regarding HIV compared to mass health promotions. The healthcare professionals can select particular localities for a certain period and emphasize on counseling the people in the locality. This will allow the healthcare professionals to develop a deeper understanding of the existing mentality of the people in the locality and use appropriate counseling approach to change the thought. As health promotions consider spreading awareness within the mass, the effectiveness of the initiative is difficult to measure. On the contrary, as counseling approach, provide an opportunity to communicate personally with the people and the HIV patients, the effectiveness of the process is more compared to health promotions. For example, listening and talking to the patients suffering from HIV are considered as better, as this allows personal helps for the patients in difficult times.
Thus from the above discussion, it can be concluded that HIV is incurable is the greatest myth. People who are suffering and coming out to tell their problems are getting the necessary attention and are being cured completely to lead a normal life. All the social stigmas associated with the HIV are slowly being removed from the society. People are becoming more open towards the LGBT community. New laws are being formulated and the pressure of secluding them is falling because the religious groups are becoming tolerant with the Catholic Church being the leader. New laws and a new opening for the transgender people are on the rise. Sex Education and sanitary education is being formulated to make the people aware of the surroundings and eliminate the potential threats of contacting the HIV virus.
Atkins, D. (2012). Looking queer: Body image and identity in lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgender communities. Routledge.
Baral, S. D., Poteat, T., Str?mdahl, S., Wirtz, A. L., Guadamuz, T. E., & Beyrer, C. (2013). Worldwide burden of HIV in transgender women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The lancet infectious diseases, 13(3), 214-222.