Communication theories of Management ?
Communication is the flow of information from a source to a receiver and back. There are different communications, channels that are available. Recently I went shopping with a friend in a cloth shopping mall. In our shopping spree we were moving from one shop to another in such of the best items that we were looking for. As a communication, student I was observing the communication, patterns that are applied in the process of communication, between the client and the seller. The most important skill that is applied in this communication, process is negotiation skills where the seller attempts to convince the seller on the price that the item is being sold at.
The transaction model of communication, positions both the sender and the receiver in the context of shared experiences. Miller (2005, P. 16) suggests that in this model each communication, element exists about other models. This means that communication is an exchange of something of value and thus the communication is based on a transaction that the two parties have. In a buyer and seller relationship, the communication, that takes place between the parties involved is based the transaction that they want to form. Here the seller wants to achieve the best price for the item being sold while the buyer seeks to achieve the lowest price in the market. Therefore each party takes turns in sending messages and the role that each of them plays in the communication reverses each time one of them sends the message. According to Miller (2005, P. 57) the transactional model, the environment and medium of communication, keeps changing where the people that are involved in the process keep changing. Once one customer has left, the other customer comes in and the way the seller relates to the new customer depends on many factors like, attitude and body language of the customer. The sender and the receiver keep the conversation alive through an interdependent me relays message between them.
Barnlund (2008, P. 47) suggest that the transactional model relates communication, to social reality of the individual or group in the context that they are in. this means that responses cannot be predicted since different backgrounds of the parties involved shape the kind of communication, that takes place. Further social and cultural context determine the nature of communication. For example certain items like under wears are not mostly bargained like other items, while on the hand,, women are seen to bargain more than men.
On the other hand, Berlo’s SMCR theory of communication is based on four factors of sender, message, channel and receiver. In communication, each of the components is affected by many factors that exist within the environment that communication, takes place. Littlejohn & Foss (2008, P. 18) states that communication, skills of the sender affect the process of communication,. In this case the shop owner or sales agent is the sender of the message since they are the ones who start communicating with the client. If the seller has good communication, skills the message will be relayed well to make customers be willing to check the prices of the items being sold. On the other hand, the buyer is the receiver of the message and thus the message has to be communicated in a way that allows the receiver to understand the message. Wang, et al.(2009, P. 671) argues that the attitude of both the sender and the receiver also determines how effective the message can be received or relayed. Attitude affects the message depending on the social systems and knowledge that the parties in the communication, system have. The parties that are involved in communication, like in our case the seller and my team have a common ground in the communication, process for information or messages to flow from one person to another. All factors in communication, must in sync in both parties for easy communication, between them.
Salas (2016, P. 79) argues that communication, accommodation theory is based is based on the interaction between people based on adjusting speech and vocal patterns using gestures to accommodate others. This theory is based on reasons why individuals emphasize or use communication, to minimise social differences that exist between different groups or parties that are involved in the conversation. Gallois, et al. (2005, P. 123) suggests that iIn communicating, parties link language, context and identity. Both the receiver and the sender base their communication, on interpersonal and personal factors in making their communication using accommodation (Ayoko, et al., 2002, P. 167). Accommodation is based on convergence and divergence. In our interaction with the sellers in the shopping malls both convergence and divergence were used in communication,. Convergence was based on strategies used by the buyers and the sellers to reduce differences between them to make communication, better; on the other hand, divergence was based on limiting accommodation by accentuating speech and nonverbal differences between us.
Therefore communication, accommodation, transaction model and Berlo’s SMCR are both based on factors within the communication, environment that shape the way communication, takes place. The Berlo’s SCMR theory uses four factors to determine and shape the effectiveness of communication,; similarly communication, accommodation is based on the interaction between the parties in communication, who adjust their communication, by diverging or converging to create an environment that accommodates each other (Jones, et al., 2006). Lastly the transactional model positions the sender and the receiver in the context of shared experiences that they have.
Therefore organisational communication is based creating an environment that accommodates all the parties involved in the communication, process. Salas (2016, P. 78) suggests that communication, has to be based on creating conducive environment for the message to be conveyed to all the parties. The sender and the receiver must be positioned in a way that allows the sender and the receiver to receive the message and feedback without interference. Miller (2005, P. 22) suggests that commutation is based on how factors enable the immediate situation when communication, takes place to be shaped by socio-psychological states, goals and addressee focus, sociolinguistic strategies, behaviour and tactics and lastly labelling and attributions. On the other hand, when sending and receiving the message, both the receiver and the sender evaluate future intentions when sending and receiving feedback.
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