Global Warming is become the topic of debate and severe issue almost for all the departments include politics, economy, society, business, etc. it becomes one of the biggest challenge for human beings, and it also cause serious problems for international community (Lenzen, 2007). There are number of studies conducted on low carbon issue, which mainly focus on emission accounting and reduction and also consider the aspects of carbon emissions trading platform, carbon tax and carbon emission policy (Lenzen, Wood & Weidmann, 2010).
Background to the Issues:
First section of the report discusses the background of the Adani movement conducted in Australia, and following details related to this movement are stated below:
Issues address by campaign:
This movement mainly addresses the issues related to coal, because it is the substance which is taking the lives of many people. Pollution occurred from burning coal is considered as biggest contributor in the dangerous global warming, which actually threatens the life of people. Coal mining drains and pollutes the water supplies, cause harm to the health of living beings, and also destroys natural landscapes. Almost 3000 Australians die because of the Air Pollution. During the period of 2016, accident occurred in the power station of Adani in which almost 7 workers killed because of the burst of hot water pipeline, and almost 19 Australians mine workers diagnosed with the deadly ‘Black Lung’ disease.
The main purpose of this campaign is to oppose the Carmichael coal mine proposed by Adani (Indian miner). Stop Adani is the campaign which oppose the business conducted by Adani in the Australia because Adani possess a history of such behavior that cause harm to the communities and the environment.
When across the globe both individuals and governments take steps to reduce the effect of carbon emissions on environment, at that time government of Australia give approval to the new coal mine proposed by Adani. By allowing the new project of Adani related to rail and port infrastructure will result in opening of entire Galilee Basin to up to 9 additional new mines of the world’s dirtiest fossil fuel. Miles proposed by Adani not only the biggest coal mine in Australia but it is the biggest coal mine in the world.
Burning coal from the mines of Adani will destroy the biggest natural wonder that is The Great Barrier Reef, because if this proposal is approved than this reef becomes graveyard in few decades.
Major heat waves also cause serious harm to the health of the people and causes number of deaths in Australia, and these heat waves are result of the changes occurred in climate. As stated by experts, number of death in summer season is increasing in comparison of deaths occurred in winter season. In other words, changes occurred in climate already affecting the rates of mortality. Mines proposed by Adani makes this situation worse, and for the purpose of restricting these effects on climate this movement is launched.
Credibility as an activist:
There are number of people who take actions for the purpose of opposing the mining operations proposed by Adani in Australia, but this campaign gets the heat from the entry of the fossil fuel lobby which pumps million into advertising their out of date coal to us. This movement is started with the idea that they have money but we have the power, and only a big movement can stop this mine and this becomes the reason to create this movement together.
For this cause local groups are speaking up in their areas, and various peoples are encouraged too - join a #StopAdani group or start your own group.
Rallies conducted in locations of Australia by various groups, and these rallies give the message against the Adani coal proposals.
Analyze the policy environment:
In Australia greenhouse gas emissions have risen during the period between 1991 and 2008. This section defines the policy environment of the Australia related to the carbon emission.
Power Holder Maps:
Both the major political parties of Australia decided that country must aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emission by 5% by 2020 in comparison of level of emission in 2000. Policy makers in Australia are trying to reduce the Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020 in comparison of 1990. As shown in figure 1 emission level in 2000 is slight lower as compared to 1990. Current policy trends in Australia on carbon emission are stated below:
- Government ensures that necessary expansion of particular amount of electricity must be generated through the renewable means.
- Development related to emissions offsets, and in his number of methods for the purpose of absorbing carbon dioxide is cheered. Additional element of this aspect includes the development of internationally tradable emissions offset credits on the basis of these efforts.
- Government also introduces measures related to energy efficiency, and these measures include the encouragement of lower energy consumption in the building sector.
- Government imposes fuel emission standards on the transport sector, and it also applied emission standards on important emitters such as proposed coal fired power stations.
- Provisions of financial incentives related to private sector for the purpose of reducing the emissions and these reductions would be bought by the public sector.
- Government ensures continuous funding for the purpose of research and development activities for preventing the greenhouse gas emissions.
- Government also participates on continuous basis in international climate change negotiations.
It must be noted that effectiveness of these trends had been criticized on the basis that they are not sufficient to meet the current target. Further, these trends are considered as most expensive way of reducing and preventing the emissions.it is possible to save the cost in overall economy if government focus on the trading scheme or an emissions tax, with the private sector being left to find the best way to reduce emissions (Parliament of Australia, 2017).
Above stated trends of policy are not sufficient, it is necessary for Australian government to take some strict actions against those who cause harm to the climate for their own benefit. In this Turnbull government provide approval to the Adani to conduct his new mining project which not only cause severe danger to the natural wonder of The Great Barrier of reefs but also threaten the life of Australian people.
Developing the strategy:
For the purpose of stopping the dangerous activities of Adani, participants of this movement use various tactics and develop various strategies which fall under the ambit of movement, politics, and renewables. Strategy of Stop Adani movement mainly focuses on building the movement, shifting the politics, and reserving the renewables. This movement developed various strategies for the purpose of opposing the coal mining proposal of Adani, and all these strategies are stated in detail below:
Integrated strategy maps:
Build the movement- there are number of people who have taken actions against the dangerous proposal of Adani, and for this various peoples who have fame and power participate in this movement. This can be understood through example Queensland born actor Michael Caton present 30 minutes documentary for the purpose of stop Adani (Stop Adani, 2017).
This movement also fought for the rights of the Aboriginal people who directly get affected from the operations of Adani. Various projects of Adani destroy the ancestral land, waters, and culture of Indigenous peoples, and Adani also fails in taking the approval from local Wangan and Jagalingou people.
This movement also fought for the rights of indigenous people and considers them as volunteer in their movement (Guardian Australia, 2016).
Shift the politics: there are number of approvals which were given to the dangerous mine proposal of Adani at both state and Federal level , and for making the matter worse government of Turnbull plans to waste almost $1 billion taxpayer dollars on the project. This movement mainly focuses on their own electorates and also states the consequences of approving this mine to the politics. As they clearly state that any kind of support to the coal in Australia will get the government voted out.
For this purpose participants of this movement meet with their local MP for the purpose of sharing their concern and also remind them their election promises that no public funding for Adani (Stop Adani, 2017).
Go renewables- another step taken by activist are preservation of renewable resources by contributing in the sustainability. Almost 5 million Australians reside in the solar-powered homes, and this is the bit contribution on their part to clean up the climate and cut the energy costs (Stop Adani, 2017). Therefore, now they are approaching to their government to step up and join their parties. This strategy also help the nation in creating the jobs, as there are number of people who are working in solar instead of coal. It is estimated that solar projects and other clean energy projects creates more jobs in comparison of jobs created by Adani projects (Parkinson, 2017).
Implementing the Plan:
For the purpose of implementing the above stated strategies, various campaigns are conducted by the participants of this movement and following campaigns are conducted by the participants for opposing the activities of Adani:
On 8th December 2017, promised Veto on public funds allocated to Adani from the new government of Queensland was conducted, and almost big four banks walked away. China also back out, and many experts considered it as end of Adani (ABC, 2015).
In 2015, campaign was conducted for the purpose of protecting the Great Barrier Reef from coal projects, and at that time in January also Queensland was in the state of election frenzy. With the help of this campaign people ensure the protection of Reef from new coal projects. Participants secured the promises from Palaszczuk on Adani and she stated that money of taxpayers would not be used for this project.
For other reasons, campaign continued because of which Adani gets one more stroke and Korean construction company POSCO separated from Adani which clash the hopes of Adani’s in context of funding from Korea. Later, in august after the pressure of sustained community, CommBank ditched its relationship with Adani (SMH, 2015).
In 2017, activists conduct the #StopAdani Roadshow in March, almost 4000 people gather across the country and they joined the movement to stop Adani. Almost 160 local #StopAdani groups conduct their operations in every state and territory. Members of Community hosted almost 400 screenings of the Guarding the Galilee documentary. There are number of citizens who are concerned who conduct actions at Westpac and CommBank branches until they ruled out funding Adani’s mine for good.
On 7th October, almost 20000 people formed the 60+ human signs which actually spell out #StopAdani by using their bodies at all the iconic locations in the Australia. (Figure 2).
In this movement, participants called almost 13000 Queensland voters before the election, and they also ensure at every media moment any party formed government in Queensland would veto the $1 billion taxpayer-funded loan to Adani. This pressure compel the Palaszczuk and she changed her position related to provide funds to Adani, and committed to veto the loan if she re-elected and later in few days China also opted out in context of funding the new projects of Adani.
Various other campaigns are also conducted under this movement but all the time Adani comes back with the new project and new tactic which also shattered he hopes of the participants who made so much efforts.
Critical analysis of outcomes of Campaign:
This movement conducts various campaigns against the Adani, and it also gets success in various contexts. Following are positive results of the campaigns which oppose the actions and business tactics of Adani.
After the campaign of 2015 under which activists ensures the protection of Great Barrier Reef from coal projects, Palaszczuk made promise to veto of the contribution of fund of $1 billion for the Adani. In the same year, four big banks say no to provide funds to Adani. However, things won’t work out organization took their time and rebuilt themselves. After a year Adani came back with a vengeance.
Partner of Adani that was Korean Construction Company POSCO separated from Adani, and because of this Adani does not get the funds from Korea. Later, in august 2015 pressure of sustained community was made on Commbank, which force the CommBank to ditch its relationship with Adani. China also opted out in funding the new project of Adani.
But things still not working in the favor of Australian people, because there are number of politicians who provide their support to the project of Adani. Federal Coalitionstil wants to initiate the coal mine of Adani and also want to give $1 billion taxpayer-funded loan. It is necessary for participants to state clearly that they want both the funding and the mine dead and buried.
Federal labor stated that they are opposing the $1 billion taxpayer-funded loan to Adani, but they are in support of building of the biggest coal mine in Australia. Participant wants that all the politicians of the Australia to ensure a coal free country, and for this they are committing the 29 billion tonnes of low-quality coal from the Galilee Basin in the ground. However, all these things sound impossible but results of the 2017 shows that impossible things can be possible.
Therefore, it is necessary for participants to build more pressure through legal ways on the government and for this purpose they must connect more people with their campaigns.
After considering the above facts, it can be said that this movement is considered as very important movement against the carbon emission in the Australia. When across the globe both individuals and governments take steps to reduce the effect of carbon emissions on environment, at that time government of Australia give approval to the new coal mine proposed by Adani. The main purpose of this campaign is to oppose the Carmichael coal mine proposed by Adani. Stop Adani is the campaign which oppose the business conducted by Adani in the Australia because Adani possess a history of such behavior that cause harm to the communities and the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct this movement and Stop Adani and other business opportunists like Adani to damage the environment for their own benefits.
ABC, (2015). Abbot Point: Federal Government approves huge coal port expansion near Great Barrier Reef. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
ARC, (2016). Extreme coral bleaching may be new normal by 2034. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
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Guardian Australia, (2016). Revealed: traditional owners accepted payments to attend Adani meetings. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
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Parkinson, G. (2017). Record $7.5bn renewables spend puts RET well within reach. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
Parliament of Australia, (2017). Emission Control policies. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
SMH, (2015). Adani stands down major contractors. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
Stop Adani, (2017). Go Renewables. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
Stop Adani, (2017). Guarding the Galilee: inside the fight to stop Adani coal. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
Stop Adani, (2017). Shift the Politics. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
Stop Adani, (2017). We won't stop until we #StopAdani. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.
The telegraph, (2017). Protests in Australia to 'stop Adani'. Available at: Accessed on 13th January 2018.