Claim-data-warrant sheetClaim — information- Warrant: A Model for Analyzing Arguments(that is adjusted from thework of Stephen Toulmin)ClaimsDefinition: Aclaim states your situation on problem you've selected to create about.A good claim isn't obvious. Why bother demonstrating a spot no body could disagree with?an excellent claim is engaging. Think about your market's attention period and make interesting claims whichpoint out brand new ideas: show the reader something new.A good claim just isn't overlyvague. Attacking enormous problems entire leads and then generalizationsand obscure assertions; keep from making a book-size claim.A good claim is logical;it emerges from a reasonable consideration of proof. (Note: this doesnot signify proof has just one logical interpretation. Reasonablepeople usually disagree.)A good claim is debatable. Claims which can be purely factual and claims which can be just opinion fail thisrequirement.A good claim is typicallyhypotactic (in other words., it makes use of subordinate clauses). Simple sentencesrarely comprehend enough complexity to complete justice to a well-conceived opinion.Exercise: Whichof these sentences make(s) a good claim? 1. Teachers are posed with numerous problems today. 2. Polls show that today more minorities acquire organizations than everbefore. 3. we ought to strive with every ounce of our national vitality to ensurethat America has a
bright future and that truth and justice will abide with us forever. 4. Ophelia is my personal favorite character in Hamlet because she actually is themost interesting. 5. Whenever we can put people on the moon, we could find a cure for the commoncold. 6. Though they appear mere activity, Hollywood movies are actuallyresponsible for
reinforcing cultural stereotypes in America.DataDefinition:the evidence which you cite to support your claim. Like a lawyerpresenting evidence to a jury, you need to support your claim with facts;an unsupported claim is just an assertion.Data include: Facts or statistics: objectivelydetermined data regarding the topic. (Note: exactly what constitutes «objective»may likely be operational to debate.)Expert viewpoint: the mediaand our essays are saturated in learned opinions which you should cite usually,both to support your argument and also to disagree with. Writers mustbe quoted and precisely cited in your paper.Personal anecdotes: themost difficult type of data to use well, for doing this requires a persuasiveargument that the own experience is objectively grasped and generalizable.Personal experience can, however, help bring a disagreement alive.Warrant

Definition:the warrant interprets the information and shows how it supports your claim. The warrant, or in other words, explains why the info demonstrates the claim. Intrials, attorneys for opposing sides frequently agree with the information but hotly disputethe warrants. (And a defense lawyer's failure to provide strong warrantsmay cause a warrant for the defendant's arrest.) A philosopher wouldsay your warrant helps to answer the question, «What else must certanly be truefor this idea to put on?»
Good warrantwill be a reasonable interpretation of facts. A good warrantwill maybe not make illogical interpretive leaps. Good warrantwill perhaps not assume more than the evidence supports. Good warrantmay consider and react to feasible counter-arguments.Exercise: Findwarrants which will interpret the data to support the claim within the followingpassages:1. Claim: President Clinton must be applauded for his policies on minorityowned organizations.
Information: The NYT reports that more minorities own companies now thanever prior to.
Warrant:2. Claim: Any United states can develop become president.
Information: Bill Clinton came from a poor city in an unhealthy state to be president.
Warrant:3. Claim:The college system it self encourages racial stress in its work to provideAmerica's young ones with a decent education.
Data: there are many racial tension in a lot of schools these days.
Warrant:Now, go back and attackthe warrant you have just developed. Exactly how might the information be interpretedin techniques don't offer the claims?1. Counter-warrant:2. Counter-warrant:3. Counter-warrant:

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