The study is related to different perspectives of organizational change. Organizational change is a perspective that an organization has to face in order to compete with the rapid change in the competitive business world. The definition of organizational change along with theoretical perspectives is defined in terms of theories of organizational change that underpins the necessity of change in the different departments of the organization. Apart from the definition of organizational change, the description of the organization along with the areas of organizational change is also described in the study. Role of change agent in the organizational change management is explained in the perspective of Toyota Motor Corporation. Successful strategies of organizational change include a common vision for the change. A concrete plan is required for measuring the effectiveness of the change in the organization by using the various theoretical approaches of organizational change.
Theoretical perspectives of organizational change
Organization change is defined as the change adopted by any companies in order to transform their form of business operations. When strategies of business or a major section of the companies is altered then organizational change is happened. Organizational change is required in order to cope up with the competitive business environment. There are many factors that initiates the organizational change such as rapid development of technology and globalization of markets (Alvesson & Sveningsson, 2015). However, it can be said that initiatives of organizational change when implemented in the organizational context, then the initiators have to face many issues and problems. there are many theories that describes organizational change in the real life scenarios. It will be described in the next section of the study.
The theories of Kotter’s change management model and Lewin’s change management model will be described in the perspectives of the initiatives of organizational change management.
Lewin’s Change management model
It is a popular theoretical model that is applied most of the organizations while implementing strategies of change management. According to Lewis, employees of an organization usually prefer to work in a certain environment within a preferred zones and safety. There are three stages of the theory (Barak, 2013). They are discussed in the following.
Unfreeze- In this stage, most of the employees in the organizations are found to resist the change proposed by the initiators of the organizational change. While overcoming the tendency, a stage of unfreezing or thawing should be initiated while implementing steps of motivation.
Transition- Transition is the second phase of the model. When a change is initiated in the internal departments of the organization, then it is noticed that the company shifts into a transition mode that lasts for some time. Reassurance and adequate leadership are the essential elements that are required for successful completion of this process (Batras, Duff & Smith, 2016).
Refreeze- It is the last stage of the model; the change is being accepted and implemented successfully when the company will become stable. The staffs of the organization refreeze, as they will operate according to the new patterns of change management guidelines.
Kotter has proposed the theory of change management model that consists of eight steps. The steps are discussed below.
- The first stage is creating an increase of urgency for the change required for the organization.
- The second stage is building a team who are dedicated to the change.
- Third stage is creating a vision for the change.
- Fourth stage is communicating the necessity of change.
- The fifth stage is empowering staffs with their capabilities to the change.
- Sixth step is related to creating short-term goals (Benn, Dunphy & Griffiths, 2014).
- Seventh step is related to stay persistent.
- Last step is making the change permanent.
Organizational change within Toyota
The organization chosen for the description of the organizational change is Toyota Motor Corporation. This section will describe the company profile along with the need of organizational change in the organization. Apart from that, the initiators of the change will be described below along with the implementation of theoretical frameworks.
Toyota Motor Corporation is an organization that is present almost all countries of the world. Toyota is considered as the 13th largest company in terms of revenue. In terms of capitalization, Toyota Motor Corporation is considered as largest listed company in Japan. In the market of hybrid electric vehicles, Toyota has the largest market in the world. Toyota in terms of encouraging mass market in terms of adopting hybrid vehicles are responsible for creating the largest position across the globe (Bond & Haynes, 2014). Products of Toyota Motor Corporation include luxury vehicles, automobiles, engines and commercial vehicles. The basic principle of Toyota is to focus on the needs of the employees so that they can serve their best to the company in order to attract more customers to the company. Apart from that, innovation is the main point of consideration regarding the development of cars with high quality and within a particular time. The organizational values of the organization are focused with the profitability along with the organizational commitment (By, Oswick & Burnes, 2014).
Description of change
Organizational change is required in Toyota in the manufacturing site of Toyota. It is seen that Toyota is famous for its Just in Time manufacturing process. However, it can be pointed out that not all the manufacturing facilities of Toyota Motor Corporation are implementing this process of manufacturing. The main principle of the company is to focus the highest value on the implementation process while taking action. The company is known for its good employee relations (Calegari Sibley & Turner, 2015). The supervisors of those manufacturing sites have put emphasis on this aspect and hence they are the agent of bringing change while initiating the proper forms of just in time manufacturing process. A clean mode of communication is being maintained among the other employees present at the sites. Once the need and importance of the manufacturing process is being conveyed then it will become much easy in order to implement the change in the organizational context. By constant monitoring the activities and improvement in the process of change management, the changes can be implemented in a proper manner (Cameron & Green, 2015). The employees of Toyota Motor Corporation are improving their productivity while delivering best service in the manufacturing of automobiles and other luxury vehicles.
Organizational change in Toyota
The change that is happening in the manufacturing sites of Toyota Motor Corporation is valid from the perspective of increasing profitability and superior quality of the cars for the customers. The vision and mission of Toyota Motor corporation is focused on providing values to the employees and customers. It is the reason of pursuing organizational change within the organization. In the earlier part, it is described that organizational change is necessary in order to match the standards of the competitive business environment (Carter et al., 2013). The code of conduct of Toyota Motor Corporation is committed to deliver superior quality of automobiles to its customers while satisfying the needs of the customers. The change initiator of the company can use the Kotter’s change management model and Lewin’s change management model within the organizational context in order to implement the urge of organizational change among the minds of the employees working at those manufacturing sites of Toyota Motor Corporation (Chrobot-Mason & Aramovich, 2013).
SWOT analysis and its benefits
SWOT analysis of Toyota Motor Corporation is described in this section in the context of the organizational change required in some of the manufacturing sites of the company. It is found that the employees of these sites are not meeting the organizational goals. Apart from that, the employee performances of these operational departments are not up to the mark that is not accepted by the company. Hence, the SWOT analysis of the organizational change of Just in Time is described below so that it can be implemented in a proper way through utilizing the maximum benefits of the process (Coghlan, Rashford & de Figueiredo, 2015).
SWOT analysis in terms of the proposed organizational change is useful while determining the weaknesses and threats so that the company can formulate solutions in order to mitigate the weaknesses of the proposed model. The opportunities and strengths of the model are considered as the benefits of the proposed models. In the earlier section of the study, it can be said that the company is facing issues in the level of production in some of the production houses of the company at some places (George et al., 2015). The change initiators i.e. the supervisor of the facilities are responsible for identification of the problem and its root causes. If the causes of the problems are not identified, then it is impossible to implement actual forms of change management models while proceeding with the models of change management while pursuing with the organizational change management. From the objectivist point of view the profitability of the company along with the production level of the employees are taken into consideration. The objectivists’ point of view also focuses on the different strategies proposed by the company at the different stages of operations in the corporate offices of the company (Hickman & Ojo, 2014).
The organizational change is mainly proposed to the different aspects of social construct. Toyota Motor Corporation is focused on the aspect of employee relations. Apart from that, the aspect of the community is also important as the approaches of sustainability and other different corporate strategies are focused on the community. Customers, employees, and community are the main areas of focus of the company (Hornstein, 2015). It is the reason of proposing the organizational change. However, it can be said that the organization culture is related to the effectiveness of the proposed organizational change. Employee relations are also creating a vital impact in the different approaches of the implication of just in time. behaviour and attributes of the employees comes under the aspect of socio-cultural construct. This aspect cannot be ignored as the relation of the employers have a positive impact on the productivity of the firm.
Role of change agent
A change agent is defined as the person or individual who is responsible for undertaking the task to initiate and manage different types of change in the company. A change agent or a change initiator can be both external and internal. Internal change agent includes employees, supervisors and managers who are responsible for managing the organizational change in the organization (Levanti & Klein, 2016). However, it can be said that in many multinational companies such as Toyota Motor Corporation different employees are trained in a way so that they can develop required skills while overseeing changes. In many cases, it is seen that, innovation driven companies also hires external change agent in order to identify the problems faced by the different organizational departments as well as to solve the issues by implementing appropriate measures of successful change management models (Mishra, 2013).
However, there are different types of change agent present. The types of change agents are outside pressure type, people change technology type, analysis for the top type, organizational development type, etc. In this context, it can be said that organizational development type change agent is responsible for initiating the organizational change in the manufacturing sites of Toyota Motor Corporation (Osiyevskyy & Dewald, 2015). An organizational development change agent is defined as the individuals that focus on the internal processes like communications, intergroup relations, operational strategies and decision-making process. The interventions used by the organizational-development type change agent are known as cultural change approach, as they analyse the strategies and the organization culture thoroughly. The approach used by this type of change agents covers many aspects such as team building, sensitivity training, and feedback of the survey (Senge, 2014). In this situation, the supervisors of the manufacturing sites of the company in different areas are considered as the organizational development type of change agent.
The roles of the change agent in the manufacturing sites of Toyota Motor Corporation can be categorized into few stages. They are described below.
The change agent can act as the consultant where the supervisor places the set of employees in touch of the information that are collected from outside the company. It helps the employees as well as the change agent while collecting data from inside the organization also. The ultimate purpose of the agent is to help the organization while finding solutions to the identified problems.
Toyota Motor Corporation along with other organization is in need of an individual that will favour the organizational change. As an advocate, change agent helps in gaining support regarding the new initiative and engages different people while participating in it. These change agents are responsible in spreading the requirement of different types organizational change among the minds of the employees especially in the manufacturing facilities of the company (Shirey, 2013).
As a counsellor, the change agent helps in altering the behaviours, attitudes and activities of the employees. The sense of stability from the different types of employees when gets removed then people will experience different types of varied emotions. Risks are to be taken by the employees who are confronting the change in order to receive excellent outcomes from the proposed changes.
As an expert, change agents depend on their level on their expertise in order to build a level of authority in order to supervise the employees of the organization. Through knowledge sharing the change agents can take different types of steps that drives them in a right path while leading people to the right path towards organizational change (Tynj?l?, 2013).
The most important role of the change agent in Toyota Motor Corporation is to help people while adopting different steps of organizational change. As a facilitator, change agents usually clarify the doubts of the different employees at different platforms. The role of the facilitator in Toyota Motor Corporation is to design tools, systems, processes and forms while enabling people to the pathway of success in the process of change. The role is usually creative and helpful.
The change agent in Toyota Motor Corporation as a mediator is responsible to manage the conflicts and resistances among the employees of the manufacturing sites at different locations. Change agents of the company are indulged themselves in improving the understanding level of the employees while reducing the rate of friction between the employees in a way so that they can participate in the different types of activities of the change management (Vakola, Armenakis & Oreg, 2013).
Problem-centric and dialogic approaches to change
In the earlier section of the study, it is mentioned that the organizational change is required in the manufacturing facilities of Toyota Motor Corporation. There are two suggested modes of change management models that are proposed in the above section of the study in order to make a successful change in response to the identified problems of the organization. Apart from that, the advantages and disadvantages of the two mentioned models of change management are discussed in the following.
Advantages of Kotter Change management model:
- The model focuses to obtain the buy-in from the main employees while ensuring success of the organizational change.
- Kotter change management model is applicable in its best form to the organizations following organizational structures in a traditional pattern (Whitworth et al., 2014).
Disadvantages of Kotter Change management model:
- The model is considered as a top down model. Hence, the opportunities of the model can be skipped, as all the employees are not involved in creation of the newly framed vision and mission.
- The Kotter’s model leads to resentment and resistance among the different kinds of employees if the change curve has not taken the considerations of the reactions of the people in the process of change management (Shirey, 2013).
Advantages of Lewin’s change management model
- Force field analysis of the model is considered as one of the most important advantage of the model.
- It is used in visualizing the summary of the different factors that supports or oppose the idea of the organization change.
- Force field analysis is used in expanding the evaluation of the data which is collected from the graph.
- The model is easy to understand (D'Netto et al., 2014).
- The model focuses on the people who are not in favour of the organizational change. They are resistant to the proposed organizational change.
- It is the main factor that the employees must focus on the implementing the changes of the selected area of the organization.
Disadvantages of Lewin’s change management model
- The main disadvantage of the model is that it cannot focus on all the aspects of the model in a same time.
- The model is very plan and goal oriented as well as rational.
- It is theoretically good. However, during the process of implementation, the rational aspect of the model does not considered the human experiences and feelings.
- It is advantageous for the over excited employees while it is most appropriate for the employees who are creating resistances to the different aspects of organizational change (Hornstein, 2015).
However, on describing the advantages and disadvantages of the two models of the change management models mentioned above, it can be said that Lewin’s change management model is more suitable. It is seen that the change management model of Lewis has a many advantages when compared with Kotter’s change management model. In this perspective, if the change agent of the manufacturing sites of the company at different locations. The Kotter’s management model is also a good model on initiating the steps of change management at the organizational level (Dunford et al., 2013). However, the organizational-development type change agent on using the Lewin’s change management model will actually remove the hindrances and barriers of the employees.
The study focuses on the need of organizational change in the different production sites of Toyota Motor Corporation. The need of the change is described in details along with the need of different types of change management models in order to mitigation of the problems faced by the company. Apart from that, the change agent of the company is responsible for identification of the problem along with implementation of the strategy. The role of the change agent is described in details within the organizational perspective of the Toyota Motor Corporation. Detailed descriptions of the theoretical frameworks of the change management models are described along with the advantages and disadvantages of the models.
Alvesson, M. and Sveningsson, S. (2015). Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge.
Barak, M.E.M. (2013). Managing diversity: Toward a globally inclusive workplace. Sage Publications.
Batras, D., Duff, C., & Smith, B. J. (2016). Organizational change theory: implications for health promotion practice. Health promotion international, 31(1), 231-241.
Benn, S., Dunphy, D., & Griffiths, A. (2014). Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.
Bond, M.A. and Haynes, M.C. (2014). Workplace diversity: A social–ecological framework and policy implications. Social Issues and Policy Review, 8(1), pp.167-201.
By, R. T., Oswick, C., & Burnes, B. (2014). Looking back and looking forward: Some reflections on journal developments and trends in organizational change discourse. Journal of Change Management, 14(1), 1-7.
Calegari, M.F., Sibley, R.E. and Turner, M.E. (2015). A Roadmap for Using Kotter's Organizational Change Model to Build Faculty Engagement in Accreditation. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 19(3), p.31.
Cameron, E. and Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.
Carter, M. Z., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Mossholder, K. W. (2013). Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(7), 942-958.
Chrobot-Mason, D. and Aramovich, N.P. (2013). The psychological benefits of creating an affirming climate for workplace diversity. Group & Organization Management, 38(6), pp.659-689.
Coghlan, D., Rashford, N. S., & de Figueiredo, J. N. (2015). Organizational change and strategy: An interlevel dynamics approach. Routledge.
Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
D'Netto, B., Shen, J., Chelliah, J. and Monga, M. (2014). Human resource diversity management practices in the Australian manufacturing sector. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(9), pp.1243-1266.
Dunford, R., Cuganesan, S., Grant, D., Palmer, I., Beaumont, R., & Steele, C. (2013). “Flexibility” as the rationale for organizational change: a discourse perspective. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26(1), 83-97.
George, P., MacDonnell, C., Nimmagadda, J., Murphy, J. and Dollase, R. (2015). Designing interprofessional education curriculum using multiple conceptual frameworks. Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education, 21(1), pp.9-13.
Hickman, S. and Ojo, O. (2014). Implementing Early supported discharge, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Community, Primary care, Multidisciplinary team, Change management, Kotter's 8-step Model. GSTF Journal of Nursing and Health Care (JNHC), 1(1).
Hornstein, H. A. (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), 291-298.
Levanti, G., & Klein, L. (2016). Introduction to the JOTSC Special Issue on Leveraging Organizational Change and Knowledge Management to Address Environmental Complexity. Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change, 13(1), 1-4.
Mishra, S. (2013), September. Relevance of Kotter’s Model for Change in Successfully Implementing Lean. In IFIP International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems (pp. 540-547). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Osiyevskyy, O. and Dewald, J. (2015). Inducements, impediments, and immediacy: exploring the cognitive drivers of small business managers' intentions to adopt business model change. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), pp.1011-1032.
Senge, P.M. (2014). The dance of change: The challenges to sustaining momentum in a learning organization. Crown Business.
Shirey, M. R. (2013). Lewin’s theory of planned change as a strategic resource. Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(2), 69-72.
Tynj?l?, P. (2013). Toward a 3-P model of workplace learning: a literature review. Vocations and learning, 6(1), pp.11-36.
Vakola, M., Armenakis, A., & Oreg, S. (2013). Reactions to organizational change from an individual differences perspective: A review of empirical research. The Psychology of Organizational Change: Viewing Change from the Employee's Perspective, 95-122.
Whitworth, A., Torras I Calvo, M.C., Moss, B., Amlesom kifle, N. and Bl?sternes, T. )2014). Changing libraries: facilitating self-reflection and action research on organizational change in academic libraries. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 20(2), pp.251-274.