Change Management: Organization Development Essay


Discuss about the Change Management for Organization Development.



Change management is also referred to as CM is a collective term for all the approaches required to prepare and support individuals, teams and organizations in the making of the organizational change. The change management also includes the methods that redirects or redefines the use of the business processes, resources, and the allocation of the budget and other modes of operation that change an organization or a company respectively (Cameron & Green, 2015). The Organizational Change Management that is the OCM takes into consideration the whole organization and what is required to be changed. Nevertheless, the change management is used to refer how the people and the teams are affected by the organizational transitions. The organizations have to be comfortable with the changes that are occurring in the business environment. Due to the growth of the technology, the modern organizational change is motivated by the exterior innovations more than the internal factors. The following essay discusses the theories, models, types and critiques of planned change (Gerth, 2013).

Discussion: Theories of change management

To manage the change and the implementation of the change strategies it is important to avoid implementation of the immaterial and the arbitrary methods. The change management is the ongoing process, which takes time, dedication and efforts to implement and run. There is also the requirement of the involving of people or the employees of the organization who will also be affected by these changes. The following are some strategies and approaches to implement the change management:

Lewin’s Change management model

This model is very popular and effective that helps to understand the organizational structured change. Kurt Lewin designed the respective model in the 1950s. The model has a few stages that include unfreeze, change and freeze. There is the need to have a preparation for the change and the organization has to be prepared for the change. This is an important phase as mostly people resist change (Hayes, 2014). The organization has to look into its core and re-examine it. The real transition takes place in the stage of the change. This takes time, as people need to adapt to the change and embrace it. There is the need for good leadership and reassurance to make the processes easier for the staff. The key to success is communication at this time. After the change is accepted the staff and processes at this time refreezes and things tend to go back to their normal routine. The changes should be used by the people all the time with a sense of stability and confidence that are acquired. After the change has been recognized, embraced and executed by the organization and the people, the things become secure again.

McKinsey 7 S Model

The professionals working for McKinsey & Company in the 1980s developed this model. It has seven steps. The strategy is to be created to go beyond the competition and reach its target. There is the need to develop a systematic procedure. Secondly, the way the organization is to be divided should be according to the structure. Thirdly, there should be a day-to-day system for the activities to be performed. Fourthly, the shared values, which are the main values of the organization. Fifthly, the manner or style, in which the changes are adopted and implemented. Sixthly, the staff and their working capabilities. Lastly, the skills possessed by the employees of the organization. This model offers a directional factor to the organizational change and a better understanding of the organization. The model is complex in nature compared to the others (Matos Marques Simoes & Esposito, 2014).

Kotter’s change management theory

This theory of change management is adopted mostly. John P. Kotter has designed it. This theory is divided into eight stages. The increase involves the creation of a sense of urgency among the people to provide them motivation to move forward. The building of the team is by the selection of a mix of skills, knowledge and commitment. In order to empower action and implementation of the feedback it is to be done in a constructive way (Pollack & Pollack 2015). The focus has to be on short term goals is a good way to achieve success. Moreover managing the change in an effective manner helps to reinforce this in the workplace culture. Persistence should be there in the process of the change management. This model is easy to follow and incorporate. The focus of this theory is to accept the change and prepare for it rather than changing itself. However, the entire process in this model is very time consuming. Each step of this model gas to be followed and none can be skipped.

Planned change management

Different theories in change management have guided the companies to change all the aspects of different departments. Planned change can be done in structure, technology, human resources or some combination of the above-mentioned features. The magnitude of change can be characterized by the incremental or fundamental change (Bridges & Bridges, 2017). Planned efforts to change have been criticized by many people. The first step to change management is to identifying the group of people that needs to be involved in a change. This depends on the organization’s leadership capability, job designs and organisational policies and procedures to rigid resistance. The settings of the change management either being domestic or being international have traditionally applied that process to implement and stimulate the innovation in the organizations.

Conceptualization and practice of planned change

These change activities should be guided by the following parameters

  • Information about organisational features that are in need of change
  • Predicted or intended outcomes for making the change sustainable
  • The mechanisms by which the outcomes are achieved
  • Contingencies of successful changes
  • Concerns that are not to be taken for advantage
  • The organisational development practitioners and activities that qualifies to take place in change

Different types of planned change

The three main types of planned change is

  • Individual – this change can be of three types again. Change in allocated job assignment. Then the change in transferable factor. Last is the change in maturity level, which comes with the needed, regarding the management factors.
  • Group – this change needs to be considered different factors. Involving the trade unions and work place changes. Inefficiency in the work design also needs change in-group category. Lack of communication is also guided by group change.
  • Organization - different functions and features of change guide organisational change. This is the change in hierarchy level and involves the structural change, Strategic change, operational process oriented change and lastly the people oriented change like retrenching the entire work force.

Approaches to different planned change features

Organisational design - The classical or the traditional organisational design have long been the approach of organizations. It mainly focuses on job responsibility, creating divisions appropriate in nature and division of labor and the line of performance. The structure may be flat or for a company, which operates on global basis or outsources the resources can be streamlined. But the combination can be the cause of structural change (Cummings & Worley, 2014).

Decentralization – as the companies adapts to change they clears their path to innovation. Decentralization means that involving the minor self-contained organizational units that are meant to increase motivation and presentation of unit members and to focus their attention on highest main concern activities (Hayes, 2014). Examples of an full proof planned change’s good outcome is when Cray Empire’s Research’s decisions to let the founder Seymour Cray buy his own research benefit and investing in a separate new company, Cray Computer, is a good example. Another example is Disney’s pronouncement to create Touchstone Pictures, that offers more stylish films than the usual Disney fare.

Modified workflow – modification of the workflow system in an organization can be improvised by the ultimate productivity enhancements. Investments are the key to achieve that.

Technological change - the evolutionary incorporations of technological change has been evidence to major change in the companies. The reach of global technologies has been the key to achieve the optimum change in organization (Bradley 2016).

External and internal factors - The external factors that influence the planned change are the economic, competitive, globalizations and legislations forces, that affects or stimulates the change. Therefore, these forces can be identified as a positive force. The economical factors like financial status of the economy, the challenging consumer forces and other several factors include this (Mantere, Schildt & Sillince, 2012). The more important among this is the legislator factors and consumer preferences that involve this.

The internal factors involves the management change which gives a paradigm shift in the organization development and hiring risk is also involved in this parameter. The communication problem that happens in the organization supposed to also change the incorporation. The Intrapreneurship change is also a factor that pushes the internal organization change (Mitchell, 2013).


Therefore, from the above change management theories and planned change management discussion of the critics it can be concluded that, if a company is on a stagnant phase change is essential, but there are many aspect of change that can go negative if they are not considered properly. The positive outcome can become a nightmare for others not involved in change to cooperate smoothly.


Bradley, G. (2016). Benefit Realisation Management: A practical guide to achieving benefits through change. CRC Press.

Bridges, W., & Bridges, S. (2017). Managing transitions: Making the most of change. Da Capo Press.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Gerth, C. (2013). Introduction. In Business Process Models. Change Management (pp. 1-12). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.

Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.

Mantere, S., Schildt, H. A., & Sillince, J. A. (2012). Reversal of strategic change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 172-196.

Matos Marques Simoes, P., & Esposito, M. (2014). Improving change management: How communication nature influences resistance to change. Journal of Management Development, 33(4), 324-341.

Mitchell, G. (2013). Selecting the best theory to implement planned change: Improving the workplace requires staff to be involved and innovations to be maintained. Gary Mitchell discusses the theories that can help achieve this. Nursing Management, 20(1), 32-37.

Pollack, J., & Pollack, R. (2015). Using Kotter’s eight stage process to manage an organisational change program: Presentation and practice. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 28(1), 51-66.

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